Islamism is an umbrella term referring to several Islamic revival and purification movements which seek to institutionalize Islamic beliefs and values in government, the economy, and society.
In 1866, the Darul uloom Deoband was founded in India and soon became a center of traditional religious and academic teaching in the Islamic world. Over the years, tens of thousands of its students have gone on to found madrasahs (schools) throughout the region, educating others in the Deobandi school of thought.
The ideologies behind radical Islamic movements that resort to militant or terrorist acts in an effort to force pure Islamic law on others. Also the development of these ideologies and how they differ from modern and traditional Islam.
Caliph/Khalifah is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, with temporal and spiritual authority over the community of Islam - the word literally means "one who replaces someone else who left or died". The title has been defunct since the abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate in 1924.

Caliphate/Khilafah historically describes the succession of rulers following the Prophet Muhammad, the passing of the title from generation to the next, excluding the prophetic aspect of Muhammad's role.

A number of modern renewal movements in Islam, prominently (but not exclusively) Hizb-ut-Tahreer, seek to re-establish the institution, a single office whose occupant, as successor to Muhammad, would possess clear political, military, and legal standing as the global leader of the Muslims.
Please submit sites of organisations and groups working for the re-establishment of the Khilafah.

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Salafiism, also known as Wahhabism, is a puritanical rationalistic movement founded by Mohammad ibn Abdul Wahhab (1703-1792).

Adherents, who describe themselves as muwahhidun ("unitarians"), insist on a literal interpretation of the Koran and a strict doctrine of predestination.