This category deals with the Reformation, a movement which began in 1517 when Martin Luther posted a list of grievances, called the Ninety-Five Theses, against the Roman Catholic Church. As the spirit of reform spread other leaders appear: Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland, French-born John Calvin who settled in Geneva, and John Knox who carried Calvin's teachings to Scotland.
Sites listed in this category are those which deal with the Reformation in general, i.e.- overviews, surveys and timelines.
Sites that deal with specific reformers (Luther, Calvin, Beza, Knox, etc.) or specific countries or churches should be submitted to the appropriate subcategories of this category.
This category is devoted to the Protestant Reformation as it affected the Church of England, beginning with Henry VIII and his "Reformation Parliament" of 1529, through the influence of Elizabeth I on the Anglican Church.
Sites listed in this category are those which deal with the Reformation in the Anglican Church in general, i.e.- overviews, surveys and timelines.
Sites that deal with individuals (Cranmer, Lady Grey etc.) who influenced the Reformation should be submitted to the appropriate subcategories of this category.
This category is for websites and pages related to the author of the famous "Acts and Monuments" (also known as "Book of Martyrs"
This category is devoted to Martin Luther and his followers who protested against the Roman Catholic Church. His intent was to reform the Catholic Church internally but his actions and teachings, such as those about justification by faith, led to a separation from the Catholic Church and the formation of the Protestant movement.
Sites listed in this category are those which deal with the Lutheran Reformation in general, i.e.- overviews, surveys and timelines.
Sites that deal with specific reformers (Luther, Melanchton, etc.) or aspects of Luther''s writings or his hymns should be submitted to the appropriate subcategories of this category.
There were people and movements who prepared the way for the Reformation. These include John Wycliffe (sometimes called the "morning star of the Reformation") and William Tyndale who translated the Bible, making it available to English-speaking laymen. Wycliffe also preached that the Bible should be the only rule of faith, not the Pope, whom he called the antichrist.
In Bohemia, John Hus accepted the teachings of Wycliffe and was burned at the stake for his beliefs.
In the Netherlands and Germany there arose a movement, called the Brethren of the Common Life, which attempted to reform the Church. One of its members, John of Wessel, attacked indulgences and taught the doctrine of justification by faith. The most famous pupil was Erasmus, who wrote against the excesses of the Church. Another man who was deeply influenced by the movement was Thomas a Kempis, who wrote "The Imitation of Christ."
The Renaissance also had a religious impact, as scholars studied the works of the early Church Fathers and felt that the Church of their day had departed from the simple faith of the early church.
The Anabaptist movement started with Conrad Grebel in Switzerland and spread over many countries and ran as a side current to the main stream of the Reformation.
This movement was in part a reaction against the close ties of Church and State. Also, although the Anabaptists were quite in accord with the theology of the Reformation as expressed by Luther and Zwingli, they believed the Reformation had not gone far enough in its return to the early church teachings of the Apostles.
As a result of their teachings, they were persecuted by Zwinglians, Lutherans, Calvinists and Catholics, especially at the massacre in Munster in 1535.
The Dutch reformer, Menno Simons, joined the Anabaptists in 1536 and because of his teachings the Anabaptists became known as Mennonites.
Submissions to this category may include sites which have to do with the teachings or history of the Anabaptists or Mennonites or any of the leaders of this movement, such as Grabel, Hutter, Hofmann, Matthys or Simons.
This category will concentrate on the development of the Reformed churches in a number of countries, as well as on the influence on the Protestant church in England.
Although Martin Luther is recognized as the first great reformer of the Protestant Reformation, there were also others who objected to the excesses of the Catholic Church and sought a reformation. Some of these were Ulrich Zwingli in Zurich, Martin Bucer in Strassburg, Guillame Farel in Geneva, as well as others. These reformers disagreed with Luther in some areas, particularly in the treatment of the Eucharist or Lord's Supper. There were attempts to compromise with Luther at the Colloquy at Marlburg in 1529, but opinions were too deeply held on both sides and a separate reformation was underway.
The central figure for this branch of the Reformation then became John Calvin, who published his "Institutes of the Christian Religion" in 1536. He worked in Geneva from 1536-1538, in Strassburg from 1538-1541, and back in Geneva from 1541-1564. During his lifetime of preaching and study and writing, he outlined his theology, developed a church liturgy, a church government and started an Academy which trained other ministers.
Through the 1540's this movement was constrained to Switzerland and nearby areas. But then, in a burst of activity, it expanded to a number of countries. It spread to Scotland under John Knox, after he had been in Geneva from 1555-1559. The church in France produced the Gallic Confession in 1559. In the Netherlands, Guido de Bres published the Belgic Confession in 1561. Ursinus and Olevianus wrote the Heidelberg Catechism in 1563 in Germany. The churches in these and other countries were greatly influenced by Calvin in theology, liturgy and church government and began to be known as Reformed churches, except in Scotland where the church was named Presbyterian. These churches did not agree with Calvin on everything, especially on some of his ideas of church and state, but in most other matters followed his example.
This category deals with those reformers and churches in the Reformed branch of the Protestant Reformation. In the main category are sites describing the general Reformed movement. Sites which have to do with specific reformers or specific geographical areas should be submitted to the appropriate subcategory.
This category is for websites or pages related to the author of the "History of Protestantism".