The word "liberalism" is derived from the Latin liber, free. As the name indicates, liberalism is traditionally a political ideology emphasizing the personal liberty of each individual, including freedom of thought, conscience, religion, opinion, expression, assembly, association, movement, enterprise, occupation, contract, etc. which the state should not violate, except to protect the rights of others. Classical liberalism emerged first in the seventeenth century Europe, and was represented during the following centuries by such thinkers as John Locke, Voltaire, Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. Beside personal liberty, classical liberalism also advocated economical liberty, the right of property, capitalism and free markets. In the beginning of the twentieth century, however, the meaning of the word "liberalism" became altered in North America. The "New Liberalism" demanded a much stronger role of state in protecting personal liberty and social justice, in expense of economical liberty. This variant of liberalism is also known as "welfare liberalism" or "social liberalism" or "liberal egalitarianism". Its most famous theorists include American philosophers John Rawls and Ronald Dworkin and British economist John Maynard Keynes. As the default meaning of the word "liberal" changed in North America, began the American classical liberals call their philosophy "libertarianism" or "market liberalism". Its most notable modern representatives include Austrian economists Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek, American economist Milton Friedman and American philosopher Robert Nozick. In Europe and other parts of the world "liberalism" usually still refers to its more or less classical meaning. Therefore a liberal encountered in Europe more likely supports free market, and a liberal in America more likely defends welfare state. The former would be called a libertarian in America, the latter a social liberal or a social democrat in Europe. In most other languages than English the word "liberalism" refers almost solely to the free market variant of the word. Because of the varying meanings of the word "Liberalism" this category is divided to two subcategories, "Social Liberalism", which refers to the meaning of liberalism more common in North America, and "Libertarianism", which refers to the meaning of liberalism more common in Europe and other parts of the world.
Please pay attention to the subcategories and, if one applies, submit your site to the appropriate one.
Sites relating to the origins, development and historical events in the history of liberalism.
Sites submitted here should be specifically organized around promoting general liberal values versus advocating any particular political party on an automatic basis. If the opposition is secondary to the promotion of an alternative philosophy, the site should be sent to the category for that philosophy, such as Society: Politics: Conservatism.
Libertarianism is a political philosophy emphasizing individual liberty, free market economy and a limited government. In general libertarians hold that each individual has the freedom to seek his/her happiness in whatever way (s)he sees fit, so long as (s)he does not infringe upon the freedom of others to pursue a similar end. Originally the philosophy now called libertarianism was known by another name, liberalism. In the beginning of 20th century North America this word was taken over by social democrats. These days the original liberalism is known in North America as "classical liberalism", "market liberalism" or "libertarianism". In Europe and other parts of the world the term "liberalism" is still used more or less in the "classical" sense.
Please pay attention to the subcategories and, if one applies, submit your site to the appropriate one.
This category is designated for those liberal parties, which can't be classified "libertarian" or "left liberal" (="liberal" in the meaning commonly used in United States and Canada). If the party can be classified as a libertarian or left liberal party, it should be listed in the respective category. Some parties include the word "liberal" in their names without actually being liberal in any generally used meaning of the word. Those parties shouldn't be listed in this category, but according their real ideology.
If the party can be classified "left liberal", please submit it to the category Society: Politics: Liberalism: Left Liberalism: Parties.

If the party can be classified "libertarian", please submit it to the category Society: Politics: Liberalism: Libertarianism: Parties.

Please submit only sites in English language into this category.