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Description: William Paley, 1743-1805. Early Modern English philosopher and theologian. In moral philosophy, he espoused a form of utilitarianism.
William Paley, 1743-1805. Early Modern English philosopher and theologian. In moral philosophy, he espoused a form of utilitarianism.
Description: Matteo Palmieri, 1406-1475. Florentine humanist writer whose principal writings were in political philosophy.
Matteo Palmieri, 1406-1475. Florentine humanist writer whose principal writings were in political philosophy.
Parmenides of Elea, fl. 6th century BC. The best-known of the Eleatic school of early Greek thinkers, and a foundational influence in classical Western thought. He compiled his philosophy in a narrative poem which survives only as fragments.
Blaise Pascal, 1623-1662. Early modern French thinker, known for his contributions to science and mathematics as well as his phiosophical writings. His philosophy, as expressed in the Pensees and Provincial Letters, is customarily placed in opposition to that of Descartes.
Jan Patocka, 1907-1977. Czech philosopher best known for his writings on human freedom.
Description: Paul of Venice (Paulus Nicolettus Venetus, Paulus Venatus, Paolo Nicoletti Veneto), 1369-1429. Medieval philosopher and theologian, a metaphysician of the Oxford Realist school.
Paul of Venice (Paulus Nicolettus Venetus, Paulus Venatus, Paolo Nicoletti Veneto), 1369-1429. Medieval philosopher and theologian, a metaphysician of the Oxford Realist school.
Description: Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, 1804-1894. American Transcendentalist writer and educator.
Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, 1804-1894. American Transcendentalist writer and educator.
Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus), fl. 13th century AD. Scholastic thinker known solely as the author of an important work of medieval logic, the Summule logicales magistri Petri Hispani. This text continued to be taught in European universities into the 17th century.
Philodemus, c. 110 BC - c. 40 BC. Greek philosopher of the Epicurean school, who taught in Naples. Known to us largely through his writings which were preserved in the ruins of Pompeii.
Description: Philolaus (Philolaus of Croton, Philolaus of Tarentum), fl. 5th century BC. A leading Pythagorean philosopher who survived the persecution of that school. He is widely attributed with having originated the theory of spherical universe.
Philolaus (Philolaus of Croton, Philolaus of Tarentum), fl. 5th century BC. A leading Pythagorean philosopher who survived the persecution of that school. He is widely attributed with having originated the theory of spherical universe.
Description: John Philoponus (John the Grammarian, John of Alexandria, Johannes Grammaticus, Johannes Alexandrinus), c. 490 - c. 570. Late classical Alexandrian Christian philosopher, best known for his critical attacks on Aristotle''s physics. Although his writings are independent of any dogmatic tradition, his closes affiliation is with Alexandrian Neoplatonism.
John Philoponus (John the Grammarian, John of Alexandria, Johannes Grammaticus, Johannes Alexandrinus), c. 490 - c. 570. Late classical Alexandrian Christian philosopher, best known for his critical attacks on Aristotle's physics. Although his writings are independent of any dogmatic tradition, his closes affiliation is with Alexandrian Neoplatonism.
Description: Philo of Alexandria (Philo Judaeus, Philon), c. 20 BC - c. 50 AD. Ancient Hellenistic Jewish philosopher, whose philosophical writings are representative of Middle Platonism. He had a strong influence on early Christian writings.
Philo of Alexandria (Philo Judaeus, Philon), c. 20 BC - c. 50 AD. Ancient Hellenistic Jewish philosopher, whose philosophical writings are representative of Middle Platonism. He had a strong influence on early Christian writings.
Description: Alvin Carl Plantinga, b. 1932. Contemporary American religious thinker. His work has focused on metaphysics and the philosophy of religion, especially the ontological argument for the existence of God.
Alvin Carl Plantinga, b. 1932. Contemporary American religious thinker. His work has focused on metaphysics and the philosophy of religion, especially the ontological argument for the existence of God.
Academic pages in English. Thanks.
Plato, classical Greek philosopher who lived from approximately 427 BC to 347 BC. He was a student of Socrates and a teacher of Aristotle. His philosophy is known to us primarily through dialogues he wrote, usually featuring Socrates as a main character.
George Gemistus Plethon (1355–1452), a Renaissance Platonist who influenced the Platonic Academy in Florence.
Plotinus, 205-270. Hellentistic philosopher probably born in Egypt. Generally considered the founder of Neoplatonism, he developed a view of reality as a series of emanations from a central essence. He wrote in Greek.
Description: Jules Henri Poincaré, 1854-1912. Nineteenth-century French philosopher and mathematician. In the philosophy of science, his chief contention was that scientific proofs are conventional -- that is, based on plausibility rather than truth.
Jules Henri Poincaré, 1854-1912. Nineteenth-century French philosopher and mathematician. In the philosophy of science, his chief contention was that scientific proofs are conventional -- that is, based on plausibility rather than truth.
Description: Michael Polanyi, 1891-1976. Hungarian-British physical chemist and philosopher of science.
Michael Polanyi, 1891-1976. Hungarian-British physical chemist and philosopher of science.
Description: Pietro Pomponazzi (Petrus Pomponatius), 1462-1524. Renaissance (or late medieval) Aristotelian scholar, leader of the anti-Averroist faction at the University of Bologna.
Pietro Pomponazzi (Petrus Pomponatius), 1462-1524. Renaissance (or late medieval) Aristotelian scholar, leader of the anti-Averroist faction at the University of Bologna.
Academic pages in English. Thanks.
Karl Raimund Popper, b. July 28, 1902 in Vienna, d. September 17, 1994. Numbered among the greatest positivists of the twentieth century. His principal writings were in English.
Porphyry, alias Porphyrius Malchus, lived c.232 AD to c.305. Syrian-born Neoplatonist philosopher who lived under the Roman Empire, student of Plotinus. None of his works have survived intact.
French philosopher and professor
Arthur Prior, 1914-1969. Influential thinker on intensional logic and inventor of tense logic.
Proclus, 411-485. Neoplatonist philosopher educated at Alexandria and Athens. In addition to his philosophical works, he wrote a prized commentary on Euclid's Elements.
Description: Prodicus (Prodicos, Prodikos) of Ceos (Keos), fl. 5th century BC. Ancient Greek Sophist philosopher and famed rhetorician and disciple of Protagoras. He is said to have been a teacher of Socrates, and like his pupil, he was slain by the Athenians for his subversive teachings.
Prodicus (Prodicos, Prodikos) of Ceos (Keos), fl. 5th century BC. Ancient Greek Sophist philosopher and famed rhetorician and disciple of Protagoras. He is said to have been a teacher of Socrates, and like his pupil, he was slain by the Athenians for his subversive teachings.
Protagoras of Abdera, fl. 5th century BC. Greek philosopher, a contemporary of Socrates, numbered with Gorgias and others among the Older Sophists. He was exiled from Athens in 415 BC for impiety. No works of his have survived; we know of him through the writings of others, and especially through Plato's dialogue Protagoras, a rather unflattering portrait of him and his disciples in conversation with Socrates.
Description: Samuel Baron von Pufendorf (Puffendorf), 1632-1694. Early modern German jurist, historian, natural-law theorist and social philosopher. He is best known for his contribution to the theory of international law, where he followed in the footsteps of Grotius.
Samuel Baron von Pufendorf (Puffendorf), 1632-1694. Early modern German jurist, historian, natural-law theorist and social philosopher. He is best known for his contribution to the theory of international law, where he followed in the footsteps of Grotius.
Description: Hilary Putnam, b. 1926. Contemporary American philosopher who stands close to the pragmatist tradition. His most groundbreaking work has been in epistemology.
Hilary Putnam, b. 1926. Contemporary American philosopher who stands close to the pragmatist tradition. His most groundbreaking work has been in epistemology.
Pyrrho of Elis, c. 360 BC to c. 270 BC. First of the Greek Skeptics. He is not known to have produced any written philosophical works; however, his thought had a great influence and contemporary and later thinkers, most notably Sextus Empiricus.
Description: Pythagoras of Samos, c.560 BC - c.480 BC. Early Greek philosopher and mathematical thinker, founder of the religious Pythagorean Order, and of the broader Pythagorean school of thought. His teachings have come down to us only in fragmentary and secondhand form.
Pythagoras of Samos, c.560 BC - c.480 BC. Early Greek philosopher and mathematical thinker, founder of the religious Pythagorean Order, and of the broader Pythagorean school of thought. His teachings have come down to us only in fragmentary and secondhand form.
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