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Edward Caird, 1835-1908. Leading thinker of the British Idealists, and a close associate of Thomas Hill Green. He was a key 19th-century English-language exponent of Kant and Hegel.
Tommaso Campanella, 1568-1639. Italian empiricist philosopher and dissident Dominican. A disciple of Telesio, he is most remembered today for his defense of Galileo.
Melchior (Melchor) Cano, Dominican thinker, 1509-1560. His theological system, influenced by humanist thought, is widely viewed as the first Catholic "positive theology."
Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970). German-American philosopher, a leader among the logical positivists of the twentieth century. He began his career with a focus on the philosophy of science, but later moved to the philosophy of language, especially semantics.
Carneades (Karneades), c. 214 BC - c. 129 BC. Greek philosopher and head of the . He followed the lead of his predecessor Arcesilaus, turning in the skeptical direction which was to define the New Academy.
Description: Ernst Cassirer, 1874-1945. Neo-Kantian German philosopher of mind, best known for his work on symbolic representation. The most notable difference between his philosophy and Kant''s lies in his contention that the a priori categories develop historically.
Ernst Cassirer, 1874-1945. Neo-Kantian German philosopher of mind, best known for his work on symbolic representation. The most notable difference between his philosophy and Kant's lies in his contention that the a priori categories develop historically.
Spanish-American 20th century philosopher, professor at Indiana University
Cornelius Castoriadis, 1922-1977. A political philosopher, social critic, economist and psychoanalyst, he wrote in French. He is best known for his influential leftist critique of Leninism, as developed in the journal Socialisme ou Barbarie, which he published.
Andrea Cesalpino (Andreas Caesalpinus), 1519-1603. Italian philosopher, scholar and naturalist, known for his work in botany and in the interpretation of Aristotelian thought.
David Chalmers. Contemporary American philosopher of mind, employed at the University of Arizona. Known for his reinterpretation of mind/brain dualism.
Pierre Charron, 1541-1603. French preacher and philosopher, a close associate of Michel Eyquem de Montaigne.
Emile Chartier, also known by his pseudonym Alain, 1868-1951. French political thinker and philosopher of science. He was one of Simone Weil's teachers.
Description: Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marquise du Châtelet-Laumont, 1706-1749. French Enlightenment translator of philosophical and scientific works, including Newton''s Principia. She was a friend and correspondent of Voltaire. Her own thinking was strongly influenced by Leibniz, on whose physics her chief original book was based. She is a pivotal figure in the history of mathematics and of early modern philosophy.
Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marquise du Châtelet-Laumont, 1706-1749. French Enlightenment translator of philosophical and scientific works, including Newton's Principia. She was a friend and correspondent of Voltaire. Her own thinking was strongly influenced by Leibniz, on whose physics her chief original book was based. She is a pivotal figure in the history of mathematics and of early modern philosophy.
20th century American philosopher, professor at Brown University, known for his contributions to epistemology
20th century Ukrainian-American philosopher. Active on the internet -- known for his Meta-Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and sites devoted to Wilfrid Sellars and C. D. Broad
Chrysippus of Soli (280-206 B.C.) is considered, along with Zeno of Citium, the cofounder of Stoicism.
Manuel Chrysoloras, c. 1350 - 1415. Greek-born scholar who was the first teacher of Greek in Florence, and helped to bring about the birth of Florentine humanism.
Paul Churchland, living American philosopher and cognitive scientist.
Leon Chwistek, 1884-1944. Polish philosopher, artist and logician. In art, he helped to found the Polish Expressionist, or Formist, school.
20th century Ukrainian historian of philosophy and literary critic. Known especially for his work on Hryhorij Skovoroda, the "Socrates of Ukraine."
Emile Cioran, 1911-1995. Pessimist thinker known for his essays and aphorisms. He was born in Romania, but spent most of his life in Paris and became a French citizen.
Hélène Cixous, b. 1937. Iconoclastic French feminist thinker and scholar.
Samuel Clarke, 1675-1729. English theologian and philosopher who propounded the views of Newton and Locke against those of Leibniz (with whom he corresponded) and the deists.
Cleanthes (331-232 B.C.) was the Stoic philosopher who presided over Zeno's school after his death.
Nino Cocchiarella, b. 1933. American logician and philosopher of logic.
Catharine (Catherine) Trotter Cockburn, 1679-1749. Noted 18th-century defender of Locke, and playwright.
R.G. Collingwood, 1889-1943. British philosopher of history.
Description: Auguste Comte, 1798-1857. Nineteenth-century French philosopher and founder of Positivism.
Auguste Comte, 1798-1857. Nineteenth-century French philosopher and founder of Positivism.
Étienne (Ettiene) Bonnot de Condillac, 1715-1780. French Encyclopedist and disciple of Locke.
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet, 1743-1794. French economist, statesman, mathematician and philosopher.
Confucius, or Kung Fu-tzu, 551 BC - 471 BC. The most influential of all the classical Chinese philosophers. Known for his espousal of traditional virtues such as goodness, piety, loyalty, bravery, duty and consideration.
Benjamin Constant, 1767-1830. French-speaking Swiss liberal political thinker, author of the political novel Adolphe.
Lady Anne Conway, nee Anne Finch (Finche), 1631-1679. Early English female philosopher, whose ideas anticipated those of Leibniz. Her sole formal work was published after her death.
Henry Corbin, 1903-1978. French philosopher and mystic. Best known for his study of Islam, he published and translated works in many areas. His influence is most acknowledged today in archetypal (Jungian) psychology.
Description: Crates of Thebes (Crates the Cynic, Krates), fl. c. 300 BC. Cynic philosopher and husband of Hipparchia. He was a student of Diogenes of Sinope, and a teacher of the Stoic Zeno of Citium.

Crates the Cynic should not be confused with Crates the actor, who lived nearly 200 years earlier.
Crates of Thebes (Crates the Cynic, Krates), fl. c. 300 BC. Cynic philosopher and husband of Hipparchia. He was a student of Diogenes of Sinope, and a teacher of the Stoic Zeno of Citium.
English philosopher and professor interested in religious disappointment.
Critias (Kritias) of Athens, son of Callaeschrus, c. 460 BC - 403 BC. Ancient Greek politician and philosopher who wrote prolifically, although only fragments of his works survive. He was a pupil of Socrates, although the two were frequently at odds.
Benedetto Croce, 1866-1952. Italian philosopher and critic, strongly influenced by Marxist thought. His chief works are concerned with aesthetics.
Benedetto Croce, 1866-1952. Italian philosopher and critic, strongly influenced by Marxist thought. His chief works are concerned with aesthetics.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, born Juana Inés De Asbaje, 1651-1695. Female Mexican writer, poet and philosopher.
Description: Ralph Cudworth, 1617-1688. Early modern English natural philosopher and theologian, member of the Cambridge Platonists.
Ralph Cudworth, 1617-1688. Early modern English natural philosopher and theologian, member of the Cambridge Platonists.
Richard Cumberland, 1631-1718. Critic of the Platonist current in the English thought of his day. His chief work, De legibus naturae, was a comprehensive attack on Hobbes.
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Last update: Wednesday, August 11, 2010 6:24:24 AM EDT - edit