In Partnership with AOL Search
 
Gaston Bachelard, 1884-1962. French thinker. Known as an epistemologist and poetry critic.
Roger Bacon, fl. late 13th century, approximate lifespan 1220-1292. Known for his contributions to mathematics and early natural science.
French philosopher, former chair of philosophy at the École Normale Supérieure (ENS)and a prominent figure in an anti-postmodern strand of continental philosophy.
Description: Alexander Bain, 1818-1903. Nineteenth-century Scottish philosopher and educator. He played an important role in the history of psychology, helping to establish it as a science.
Alexander Bain, 1818-1903. Nineteenth-century Scottish philosopher and educator. He played an important role in the history of psychology, helping to establish it as a science.
Description: Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin, 1895-1975. Continental philosopher, semiotician and philosopher of language, a Russian dissident who was the leading light of the Bakhtin Circle. He survived the Stalinist purges and died in Moscow.
Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin, 1895-1975. Continental philosopher, semiotician and philosopher of language, a Russian dissident who was the leading light of the Bakhtin Circle. He survived the Stalinist purges and died in Moscow.
Description: Domingo Bañez (Banez, Vañez), 1528-1604. Late medieval Spanish Thomist philosopher and Catholic theologian. He is known for his work on the metaphysical question of free will, opposing Luis de Molina and upholding the doctrine of God''s physical predetermination of all human acts.
Domingo Bañez (Banez, Vañez), 1528-1604. Late medieval Spanish Thomist philosopher and Catholic theologian. He is known for his work on the metaphysical question of free will, opposing Luis de Molina and upholding the doctrine of God's physical predetermination of all human acts.
Hazel Barnes, b.1915. American philosopher and follower of Sartre, known for her translation of Being and Nothingness. She also sought to further develop the Sartrean ethical system.
Georges Bataille, 1897-1962. French writer of philosophy and fiction, known for his perspectives on sacrifice, chance, and sexuality.
Place only essays about Baudrillard''s ideas and philosophy in this category.
Jean Baudrillard. French social theorist and philosopher, known for his writings on postmodern culture and media.
Bruno Bauer, 1809-1882. German philosopher and theologian, a follower of Hegel and prominent member of the Young Hegelians movement.
Description: Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, 1714-1762. German thinker of the early modern Enlightenment period. He was the first to propose and name the discipline of aesthetics.
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, 1714-1762. German thinker of the early modern Enlightenment period. He was the first to propose and name the discipline of aesthetics.
Description: Pierre Bayle, 1647-1706. Early modern French thinker and forerunner of the Enlightenment, strongly critical of both religious orthodoxy and philosophical rationalism. Best known for his Historical and Critical Dictionary, and for his Skeptical treatment of Cartesian epistemology.
Pierre Bayle, 1647-1706. Early modern French thinker and forerunner of the Enlightenment, strongly critical of both religious orthodoxy and philosophical rationalism. Best known for his Historical and Critical Dictionary, and for his Skeptical treatment of Cartesian epistemology.
Description: James Beattie, 1735-1803. Philosopher and poet of the late Scottish Enlightenment who is best remembered for his opposition to Hume. The translation into German of his attack on Hume allowed Kant to become familiar with that philosopher''s work.
James Beattie, 1735-1803. Philosopher and poet of the late Scottish Enlightenment who is best remembered for his opposition to Hume. The translation into German of his attack on Hume allowed Kant to become familiar with that philosopher's work.
Cesaria Beccaria, 1738-1794. Italian legal scholar and political philosopher. Remembered for his denunciation of capital punishment and torture.
Description: Walter Benjamin, 1892-1940. German critic, historian, and philosopher, who came to be widely known outside Germany following World War II, after his death in 1940. His work has significance for many fields, especially the philosophy of history.
Walter Benjamin, 1892-1940. German critic, historian, and philosopher, who came to be widely known outside Germany following World War II, after his death in 1940. His work has significance for many fields, especially the philosophy of history.
Literary critic and philosopher, best known as an expert on deconstruction and the works of Jacques Derrida and Jean-François Lyotard.

For quicker placement in the directory please follow these Submission Tips:

Title: Name of Site or Source: Article Name

Description: This describes the website and should note distinguishing features found on the site without the use of hype, personal pronouns, or repetitive terms.

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). English economist and philosopher, best known as a founder of Utilitarianism and opponent of Adam Smith's notion of "natural rights."
Description: Nikolai Aleksandrovich Berdyaev, 1874-1948. Ukrainian philosopher, later exiled, who began his intellectual career as a Marxist. He became disillusioned with Leninism and did most of his later work in the existentialist tradition.
Nikolai Aleksandrovich Berdyaev, 1874-1948. Ukrainian philosopher, later exiled, who began his intellectual career as a Marxist. He became disillusioned with Leninism and did most of his later work in the existentialist tradition.
Description: Gustav Bergmann, 1906-1987. A member of the Vienna Circle of positivist thought, Bergmann later emigrated to the United States. He served as a Philosophy and Psychology professor at the University of Iowa. Bergmann''s later works turned from philosophy of science to metaphysics, specifically realism and ontology.
Gustav Bergmann, 1906-1987. A member of the Vienna Circle of positivist thought, Bergmann later emigrated to the United States. He served as a Philosophy and Psychology professor at the University of Iowa. Bergmann's later works turned from philosophy of science to metaphysics, specifically realism and ontology.
Henri Bergson, 1859-1941. French philosopher especially known for his teachings on duration and vital force. Aside from his philosophical work, he is remembered for his work supporting the League of Nations and his refusal of special treatment during the Vichy government's persecution of Jews.
Description: George Berkeley, 1685-1743. Irish-born metaphysician and epistemologist, usually numbered among the great British Empiricists. He is particularly remembered for the argument that material objects can only be known through God. He also served as Bishop of Cloyne for many years.
George Berkeley, 1685-1743. Irish-born metaphysician and epistemologist, usually numbered among the great British Empiricists. He is particularly remembered for the argument that material objects can only be known through God. He also served as Bishop of Cloyne for many years.
Description: Isaiah Berlin (1909-1997). Latvian-born British philosopher, one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. He was known both as a political philosopher and as a historian of ideas.
Isaiah Berlin (1909-1997). Latvian-born British philosopher, one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. He was known both as a political philosopher and as a historian of ideas.
"Life can be seen through many windows, none of them necessarily clear or opaque, less or more distorting than any of the others."
Description: John Bessarion (Johannes Bessarion, Johannes Basilius), 1403-1472. Medieval Byzantine philosopher-theologian who worked to bring classical philosophy to the west. In his work to unite the Greek and Roman churches, and his apostasy to Roman Catholicism, he is an important figure in the history of medieval Christianity.
John Bessarion (Johannes Bessarion, Johannes Basilius), 1403-1472. Medieval Byzantine philosopher-theologian who worked to bring classical philosophy to the west. In his work to unite the Greek and Roman churches, and his apostasy to Roman Catholicism, he is an important figure in the history of medieval Christianity.
Description: Lucian Blaga, 1895-1961. Romanian author, poet and philosopher of mind.
Lucian Blaga, 1895-1961. Romanian author, poet and philosopher of mind.
20th century American rationalist
Description: Maurice Blondel, 1861-1949. French Catholic thinker who worked to bring systematic metaphysics together with Christian doctrine.
Maurice Blondel, 1861-1949. French Catholic thinker who worked to bring systematic metaphysics together with Christian doctrine.
Jean Bodin, 1530-1596. French political philosopher and lawyer who argued for absolute sovereignty.
Description: Jacob (Jakob) Boehme (Behmen), 1575-1624. German mystic and early modern philosopher. Known for his radical vision of God as including a negative, painful aspect. His influence on English Anabaptists, and later on the German Romantics, was especially marked.
Jacob (Jakob) Boehme (Behmen), 1575-1624. German mystic and early modern philosopher. Known for his radical vision of God as including a negative, painful aspect. His influence on English Anabaptists, and later on the German Romantics, was especially marked.
Description: Online texts of the writings of Boethius, in English translation.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, circa 475 - 524 AD. Late Roman or very early medieval writer, generally considered a Neoplatonist. He wrote a number of commentaries on Plato, Aristotle and Nicomachus. He wrote his most famous work, On the Consolation of Philosophy, shortly before his execution by horrific torture at the hands of King Theodoric
Henry St. John Bolingbroke, 1678-1751. English political philosopher and statesman. Follower of John Locke.
Bernard Bolzano, 1781-1848. German thinker who established a philosophical foundation of mathematics based on the theory of classes. A strong influence on Tarski and other 20th century logicians and semanticists.
20th century American philosopher, professor at the University of Washington
Description: Bernard Bosanquet, 1848-1923. British Idealist philosopher who developed a modified form of Hegelian ontology, and held that all contradictions are illusory.
Bernard Bosanquet, 1848-1923. British Idealist philosopher who developed a modified form of Hegelian ontology, and held that all contradictions are illusory.
Description: Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich (Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Rudjer Josip Boskovic), 1711-1787. Croatian scientist and philosopher of the Enlightenment period. He is best known for his effort to explain reality through the attraction and repulsion of non-dimensional particles. This was an important early step in the philosophy of physics, and had a profound influence on the later electromagnetic theory of Maxwell.
Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich (Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Rudjer Josip Boskovic), 1711-1787. Croatian scientist and philosopher of the Enlightenment period. He is best known for his effort to explain reality through the attraction and repulsion of non-dimensional particles. This was an important early step in the philosophy of physics, and had a profound influence on the later electromagnetic theory of Maxwell.
Robert Boyle (1627-1691), Irish philosopher and physicist.
Description: Francis Herbert Bradley, 1846-1924. British Idealist metaphysician who subscribed to "absolute idealism."
Francis Herbert Bradley, 1846-1924. British Idealist metaphysician who subscribed to "absolute idealism."
Richard Booker Brandt, 1910-1997. Twentieth-century American ethicist and philosopher who first separated "act" and "rule" utilitarianism.
Franz Brentano, 1838-1917. Philosopher and psychologist, who made particular contributions in phenomenology.
Description: Charlie Dunbar Broad (C.D. Broad), 1887-1971. British moral philosopher and parapsychologist. Today, he is remembered primarily for his historical work, carefully summarizing the various positions which had been taken in certain controversies.
Charlie Dunbar Broad (C.D. Broad), 1887-1971. British moral philosopher and parapsychologist. Today, he is remembered primarily for his historical work, carefully summarizing the various positions which had been taken in certain controversies.
Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, 1881-1966. Dutch philosopher of logic and mathematician. He founded the discipline of topology and the philosophical doctrine of intuitionism. His clash with the arch-mathematician David Hilbert was legendary.
Description: Leonardo Bruni, 1369-1444. Late medieval Italian humanist scholar and chancellor of Florence.
Leonardo Bruni, 1369-1444. Late medieval Italian humanist scholar and chancellor of Florence.
20th century Polish philosopher
Martin Buber, 1878-1965. Jewish philosopher known for his writings on human relationships and community.
Guillaume Budé (Guglielmus or Guilielmus Budaeus), 1467-1540. French humanist scholar and statesman who corresponded with Erasmus.
John Buridan (c. 1300-c. 1358) was one of the most influential philosophers of the late Middle Ages.
Walter Burley (Burleigh, Burlaeus), 1273-1357. English Scholastic philosopher and pupil of Duns Scotus who advocated a middle path between the doctrines of Scotus and Ockham.
Joseph Butler, 1692-1752. English philosopher, theologian and Anglican bishop.
Description: Judith Butler. American feminist philosopher and postmodern critical theorist, whose work focuses on sexuality, violence and queer theory.
Judith Butler. American feminist philosopher and postmodern critical theorist, whose work focuses on sexuality, violence and queer theory.
Copyright © 1998-2014 AOL Inc. Terms of Use
Last update: Saturday, April 24, 2010 7:26:17 AM EDT - edit