Philosophy, from the Greek words philo (love) and sophia (wisdom), refers to the rational inquiry of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, and conduct. Its traditional main branches are metaphysics, the study of the ultimate nature of reality, epistemology, the investigation of the origins and limits of knowledge, ethics, dealing with morality and justice, and aesthetics, the study of beauty in the arts.
Sites submitted to this category must be philosophical in nature, and deal with periods or personalities in philosophy.
Popular metaphysics, as is usually dealt with in religiously-oriented sites, theology, and New Age philosophies are better suited for categories in Religion and Spirituality. This includes psychic readings, ancient Egyptian religion, crystals, UFOs, and alien abductions, the I Ching, etc.
- Please submit personal philosophy to Society: Philosophy: Personal Pages or Society: People: Personal Pages.
- Only English-language sites are listed here; all others must be sent to the appropriate World/ category.
University and college departments and institutes of philosophy, many of them offering advanced degrees in philosophy.
Most sites have program descriptions, and links to faculty and other resources.
This category is only for bona fide academic departments. Organizations and private institutions which are not accredited and which do not offer academic degrees, but which offer instruction in philosophy, should probably go to Society: Philosophy: Products and Services
Philosophy of art, or aesthetics, is the branch of philosophy examining the nature of art and of the experience of art. Art, in this context, is broadly conceived as including the visual arts, literature, poetry, music, and dance.
Please submit only sites which approach food and eating from the perspective of a philosophical tradition. Sites which are concerned with a particular chef or restaurant''s approach to cooking, or a particular critic''s approach to dining, should be submitted elsewhere.
A tradition stemming from the early 20th century, placing a strong emphasis on clarity and rigorous debate. It is conventionally opposed to "Continental Philosophy."
The search for wisdom through open debate.
Sites submitted to this category should be in some way interactive and accommodate public discussion of a philosophical nature.
Philosopher-specific sites should be submitted to the categories definied by the @links. Synopses and sites covering several philosophers may be submitted to /Existentialism/ proper. Sites dealing with existentialist influence on literature (or existentialist literaries) go in Arts/Literature/Periods_and_Movements/Existentialism
Link collections, annotated directories, and search engines for philosophy and related areas.
Philosophy done in the traditions of Eastern thought, namely those traditions which have arisen in South and East Asia.
Description: past and present philosophy in China.
Sites in this category should either serve as general resource sites for Chinese philosophy, or seek to answer the question of what Chinese philosophy is.
As a rule, sites should be listed in regional/national categories of Philosophy only
if that is the only plausible place to list them. Sites which pertain to a specific Chinese thinker should be sent to Philosophers
, and sites which pertain to a specific movement should be sent to the appropriate category. Double listing should be reserved for exceptional
This category is devoted to the teaching of philosophy. It is supposed to provide resources for philosophy teachers, mostly at the college and university level, including sites on pedagogy in philosophy teaching, the teaching of particular subject areas, syllabi, handouts, etc. Philosophy sites which are of use mostly for students of philosophy, including online courses and course websites with substantial philosophical content should go in the most appropriate subcategory of Society/Philosophy.
Please submit sites that offer information specific to writing Philosophy papers.
Information about the job market in philosophy, job listings.
Works of philosophers or others dealing with the limits, sources, nature and methods of human knowledge.
Submit only sites dealing with knowledge and its limits, sources, nature and methods.
Ethics is the study of what's right and wrong (the word "morality" has a very similar, if not identical meaning) - as in "Stealing is wrong", not as in "2+2=3 is wrong".
As with other branches of philosophy, there is virtually nothing in ethics on which everyone agrees, not even the foundations.
who have made substantial contributions to ethical theory, or who are identified as ethicists.
Western philosophy has a long and varied history, dating back to the pre-Socratic philosophers of ancient Greece. The category for history of philosophy is dedicated to sites and pages which deal with the history of philosophy in general or a separate period, rather than with a particular topic or a particular philosopher.
Sites dealing with a school of philosophy which does not have a separate category elsewhere and which is an important movement in a particular period (e.g., scholasticism in medieval philosophy, empiricism or rationalism in modern philosophy) may be listed here.
Individual academic journals on philosophy, and directories of journal websites.
Metaphilosophy is the study of the subject, matter, methods and aims of philosophy. It is the philosophy of philosophy.
Submit only academic pages in English.
Metaphysics is a primary subject area in philosophy which investigates the nature, constitution, and structure of reality. It also deals with notions such as causation, time, modality (necessity and possibility), particulars and universals, and the relation of mind to body.
Please do not submit sites on popular metaphysics here. This category is only for sites dealing with traditional academic questions of metaphysics, not for the Tarot, divination
, channeling, paranormal activity, spirituality, etc. Such sites belong in the appropriate category in Society: Religion and Spirituality
Distinct philosophical schools of thought.
Sites for individual movements should not be listed here; they should be sent to the appropriate category if it exists. If not, please send them to the most appropriate category under History of Philosophy
or the relevant philosophical topic.
Resources and archives of academic philosophical writings, both historically and in recent times, including essays and dissertations.
This category is only for repositories of philosophical texts which span multiple topics, period, and are not all authored by the same philosopher. Single texts or text collection on a particular topic, period, or philosopher should be submitted under the appropriate category.
Organizations and associations related to philosophy.
If an organization has a regionally limited focus, it should go into the regional category. If it specializes on a particular philosophical subject, it should go in the subject category (e.g., the Nietzsche Society should go in the Nietzsche category).
This category is for issues that do not fit in any of the other Philosophy categories. It is a home for those whose philosophical ideas do not fit comfortably into the mainstream.
This category includes sites with philosophers as their subject. Content may include biographical and bibliographical information, articles, interviews, electronic texts, mailing lists, and secondary literature.
Philosophical discipline that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations of human nature in an effort to understand individuals as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values.
Philosophy for Children aims to develop and preserve the critical, creative and caring thinking and attitude that is natural to children. Dialogue, e.g. on truth, competition, ethics or logic, is one of the tools that can be used.
Devoted to this branch of philosophy, also called social philosophy.
Academic pages in English. Thanks.
Please submit academic publications that have regular contributions on the philosophy of history.
Philosophy of language is the study of philosophical issues that arise
due to the language based nature of discourse and argument. It is
dominated by philosophical analysis, the branch of philosophy that
occupies itself with what the structures of language tell us about the
concepts we deploy in communicating. Philosophical analysis dates
back to the Pre-Socratics , and was first made systematic in
Aristotle's Organon, but it was with the revolutionary new
developments in mathematical logic inaugurated by Frege that
philosophical analysis assumed the central importance in philosophy
that it does today.
Analytical philosophy is the school of philosophy which ascribes
most importance to the philosophy of language, and it is in analytical
philosophy that the so-called `linguistic turn' took place: this is
the idea that long standing controversies in philosophy about the
nature of the world and of knowledge can be settled by attention to
the use of the relevant concepts in language. But even outside
analytical philosophy, philosophy of language is important: linguistic
issues take centre stage in the philosophical hermeneutics of
Heidegger and Gadamer and in Derrida's Deconstruction, in
phenomenology issues about privacy best formulated in linguistic terms
are of crucial importance, whilst in cognitive science the debate
about the nature of concepts revolves about matters of content that
originated in the philosophy of language.
Description: Links to the categories of thinkers
who are known as philosophers of logic.
Philosophy of religion is a branch of metaphysics devoted to the analysis of religious phenomena, beliefs, movements etc. It is mostly concerned with evaluating religious claims, e.g., claims regarding the definition, the existence, "nature", and activities of God.
Please note that this category is for academic philosophy of religion only. If your site is about mysticism, personal growth, spirituality, or the like, please find an appropriate category in Society: Religion and Spirituality
The philosophy of science is concerned with the philosophical interpretation and study of the natural sciences, in particular, physics, biology, and mathematics.
This category is not for ''alternative'' science. Websites on physics that is not largely in accordance with, or based on, standard physics should be sent to Science/Anomalies_and_Alternative_Science/.
more information (editors only)
Any sites which predominantly or exclusively provide information on commercial activities related to philosophy will be listed here. These include philosophical consulting services, booksellers, etc.
Please only submit sites related to Philosophical Practice. This includes sites on Philosophical Counseling, Philosophical Consulting, Philosophical Cafes, Socratic Dialogue, as well as academic issues related to Philosophical Practice. Do not submit sites that do not have a direct relation to the area of Philosophical Practice.
Collections of secondary articles on philosophy, like the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, philosophical dictionaries, and the like.
Do not submit single articles here (unless they are part of a reference collection). Also do not submit links sites, portals, forum sites, etc., here. There are separate categories for those.
Pluridisciplinarity concerns studying a research topic not in only one discipline but in several at the same time. Interdisciplinarity concerns the transfer of methods from one discipline to another. As the prefix "trans" indicates, transdisciplinarity concerns that which is at once between the disciplines, across the different disciplines, and beyond all discipline. Its goal is the understanding of the present world, of which one of the imperatives is the unity of knowledge.
Weblogs devoted to philosophy from a scholarly approach.
Please submit only academic weblogs in English. Thanks.