Launched on April 7, 2001 and scaled down from the planned Mars Surveyor 2001 mission, NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey is planned to map the mineralogy and terrain of the Martian surface. It successfully entered Mars orbit on October 23, 2001.
Launched mid-2003, landed successfully in January 2004. Contains the Spirit and Opportunity rovers.
Among the NASA Mariner missions, Mariner 4, 6, 7 and 9 were sent to Mars.
Launched in 1998 and intended to relay Mars mapping data, soon after entering the Martian atmosphere, the Mars Climate Orbiter was declared lost by NASA in September 1999.
A European Space Agency mission that arrived to Mars end of 2003. The spacecraft included a lander called Beagle 2. However, the lander failed to produce scientific results.
Launched in 1996, NASA's Mars Global Surveyor is collecting Martian mapping data and making related observations.
A proposed communication and navigation structure at Mars.
Launched in 1996 and landing on Mars in 1997, NASA's Pathfinder mission successfully demonstrated low-cost landings on and exploration of the Martian surface.
Launched in January 1999 and intended to relay Mars climate data, soon after entering the Martian atmosphere, the Mars Climate Orbiter was declared lost by NASA in December 1999.
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched in August 2005, is on a search for evidence that water persisted on the surface of Mars for a long period of time. While other Mars missions have shown that water flowed across the surface in Mars' history, it remains a mystery whether water was ever around long enough to provide a habitat for life.
The orbiter's primary mission ends about five-and-a-half years after launch, on December 31, 2010.
A Japanese orbiter mission carrying instruments from several countries, formerly known as Planet-B, launched in 1998 and scheduled to enter Martian orbit in 2003. The injection into Mars orbit failed December 2003. The spacecraft is now in Sun orbit.
Launched by the USSR in July 1988, the Phobos missions were to conduct environmental, atmospheric, and surface studies of Mars and its moon Phobos, and conduct observations of the Sun. Phobos 1 and 2 both experienced equipment malfunctions preventing completion of the mission.
The Martian mapping data collected by NASA's Viking 1 and 2 in the late 1970s remains the most complete view of Mars to date.