'Second-order cybernetics' denotes a progressive intellectual movement within cybernetics and systems thinking that reached fruition in the 1970's. The most common explanation for the movement's agenda is that it turned the principles of cybernetics upon cybernetics itself. In second-order cybernetics, the observer of a system must be described and explained as well as the system observed.
Key thinkers affiliated with second-order cybernetics include: von Foerster, Pask, Maturana, Varela, and Spencer Brown.
The transdisciplinary nature of second-order cybernetics (and its proponents) means that relevant information might be found in many different fields. This Open Directory category should maintain a focus on second-order cybernetics (as opposed to the other related fields).
Please take a moment to consider whether your submission is most closely related to second-order cybernetics itself, or to another field (e.g., biology, linguistics). If it seems more relevant to another field, please consider submitting it to that field''s category.