The essential goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems that have goals and that participate in circular, causal chains that move from action to sensing to comparison with desired goal, and again to action. Studies in cybernetics provide a means for examining the design and function of any system, including social systems such as business management and organizational learning, including for the purpose of making them more efficient and effective.
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Educational Resources for Cybernetics.
This category covers Education of Cybernetics, NOT Cybernetics of Education!
General concepts and theories.
Application Layer K3
Cybernetics related Journal, Books and other publications, online or offline.
'Second-order cybernetics' denotes a progressive intellectual movement within cybernetics and systems thinking that reached fruition in the 1970's. The most common explanation for the movement's agenda is that it turned the principles of cybernetics upon cybernetics itself. In second-order cybernetics, the observer of a system must be described and explained as well as the system observed. Key thinkers affiliated with second-order cybernetics include: von Foerster, Pask, Maturana, Varela, and Spencer Brown.
The transdisciplinary nature of second-order cybernetics (and its proponents) means that relevant information might be found in many different fields. This Open Directory category should maintain a focus on second-order cybernetics (as opposed to the other related fields).

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