The first systematic theory of the relationships between human languages began when Sir William Jones proposed in 1788 that Greek and Latin, the classical languages of Europe, and Sanskrit, the classical language of India, had all descended from a common source. The evidence for this came from both the structure of the languages -- Sanskrit grammar has similarities to Greek and to nothing else -- and the vobcabulary of the languages. Thus, "father" in English compares to "Vater" in German, "pater" in Latin, "patêr" in Greek, "pitr." in Sanskrit, "pedar" in Persian, etc. On the other hand, "father" in Arabic is "ab," which hardly seems like any of the others. This became the theory of Indo-European languages, and today the hypothetical language that would be the common source for all Indo-European languages is called Proto-Indo-European.
Please include sites with general information on Indo-European, and portals with collections of links to various aspects of the Indo-European language family. Sites that concentrate on the origin of the Indo-European languages, the nature of their common ancestor, or on the geographical location, culture or archaeology of the people who spoke this ancestral language, should be listed under Science: Social Sciences: Linguistics: Languages: Natural: Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European.
University Departments or Programs offering courses and degrees in the study of Indo-European Linguistics.
Do not include separate courses in Indo-European studies - there must be a formal program established, whether inside a department or as an interdisciplinary program.
The format of the title should follow this pattern:
University of X - Program/Department Y
Albanian is an family of related Indo-European languages spoken in Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, Solvenia, Greece, Italy, parts of the former Republic of Yugoslavia and others. Albanian appears to be the sole modern survivor of its own subgroup, possibly descended either from Dacian or Illyrian.
The two major subfamilies of Albanian are Gheg and Tosk which are reported to be mutually unintelligible. Within the Tosk subgroup are Arbëreshë, Arvanitika and Tosk, speakers of which are reported to have varying degrees of mutual intelligibility though there is some disagreement as to the degree.
Sites for this category are focused on Albanian language linguistics and language learning. Sites about Albanian culture should be redirected to Society: Ethnicity: Albanian.
A group of dead languages, including Hittite. Although generally considered to be an Indo-European family on par with other subfamilies such as Celtic or Germanic, some scholars contend that the Anatolian languages and all the Indo-European languages are descended conjointly from a common ancestor, so the whole group should be called the "Indo-Hittite" family.
Armenian is part of the Indo-European family of languages and consists of two main dialects, western and eastern Armenian derived both from classical Armenian, also known as "Grabar", which is still used in the Armenian liturgy.
Armenian is spoken in Armenia and at least 29 other countries and is also referred to as Haieren, Somkhuri, Ena, Ermenice, Ermeni Dili and Armjanski Yazyk, in various languages.
Baltic languages are a subgroup of the Indo-European language family spoken Latvia, Lithuania and other parts of the Baltic region of Europe.
Extinct languages in this family include Prussian, Curonian, Selonian, Semigallian and Yotvingian.
The Celtic language family consists of three languages still spoken in the British Isles (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh), one language still spoken in Brittany (NW France), two languages that died out within the last few centuries (Cornish and Manx), and several languages spoken in Classical times that we know relatively little about (Gaulish, Ligurian, Lepontic, etc.). Pictish may or may not have been Celtic.
Please submit sites that deal totally or in part with some aspects of general Celtic linguistics or with those of more than one Celtic language, including those dealing collectively with the "Gaelic languages" (Irish, Scottihs Gaelic and/or Manx). Sites that cover Celtic history, archaeology or literature do not belong here.
Germanic languages are a subgrouping of the Indo-European language family and are broadly divided into the Eastern branch consisting of Gothic, the Northern branch which encompasses the Scandinavian languages and the largest branch, Western-Germanic, subgrouped into English, Frisian, German and Low Saxon/Low Franconian languages.
This category is for noncommercial sites in
the German language. Please avoid submitting the following types of sites to this category:
If you submit any of these types of sites to this category, they will be moved to a more appropriate category by the editor. If you are not sure which category your site belongs in, you may submit it here and the editor will move it to the appropriate category.
The successive stages of Greek are Mycenaean, Classical, Koine, Byzantine, and Modern.
Please submit sites on Mycenaean period Greek, which are principally about its writing system, to
Please submit sites on Koine and Classical Greek to those specific subcategories.
Please submit all other sites to the main category.
Sites that are in Latin but are not about Latin should be submitted in the World: Lingua Latina category.
Dictionaries should be submitted to:
Reference: Dictionaries: World Languages: L: Latin
Also be careful about not submitting sites that are essentially about classical studies into this category. The right place for these is probably:
Arts: Classical Studies: Roman
Listing of scientific and/or popular periodicals devoted entirely or mostly to Indo-European Studies.
English, Spanish, Russian and Hindi, just to take four common examples, are languages that can be derived from a common ancestor. This ancestor is usually called Proto-Indo-European (PIE). The web pages collected in this category are concerned with one or several aspects of the study of PIE. This is a multi-disciplinary area. Linguists are interested in the reconstructed phonology, grammar and vocabulary of PIE. Archaeologists and historians debate the question of where and when PIE was spoken, and which archaeological culture can be identified with its speakers. Finally, ethnographers and scholars of comparative religion wonder about the culture and religion of these speakers, as reconstructable from the myths and religions of known Indo-European-speaking peoples, and from the archaeological sites associated with them.
Please submit only sites associated with PIE as a whole. Sites devoted to a branch of Indo-European, such as Celtic or Indo-Iranian are best submitted to the category devoted to the branch. Sites on the prehistory of Europe, the Middle East, Central or Southern Asia are, on the other hand, best submitted to the appropriate category in Archaeology. Finally, sites with an emphasis on the distribution or grammar of known Indo-European languages are best placed at the higher level Science: Social Sciences: Language and Linguistics: Natural Languages: Indo-European cat.
The Slavic family is divided into three branches: East Slavic including Belarusan, Russian and Ukrainian; West Slavic including Czech, Polish, Slovak and Sorbian; South Slavic including Bulgarian, Macedonian, Old Church Slavonic, Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian.
A dead language that was spoken in Chinese Turkestan (Xinjiang) during the first millennium A.D. and written in a North Indian script. It has two distinct forms, known as Tocharian A and B.