Known by other scientists as the "Dismal Science," this field makes a serious effort to study and describe:
The production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of wealth and the various related issues (problems) of labor, finance, taxation, currencies, the political arena as it relates to the above areas of goods and services.
Although interest in economic theories dates to the origins of commerce itself, economics as a modern study independent of moral or political philosophy is attributed to the Scottish writer Adam Smith (1723-1790). The ideas put forth in his seminal work, Wealth of Nations, form the basis of "classical" economic theory and free-market capitalism.
This category concerns economics as a field of study. Please submit only sites with an academic, scholarly, or research orientation on economics and economies into this category.

Commercial sites are properly the realm of the Business or Shopping hierarchies. Sites about current issues, "economic justice," or the social impacts of economic theories and practices should be submitted to an appropriate subcategory of Society/Issues or one of its related branches.

This category is for sites in the English language only. You may browse a list of other available languages on the main category page.

University faculties and departments and academic institutions devoted to the study of economics. List of Academic Departments are those engaged in research, primarily Economics Departments of Universities but also including other institutions.
Please submit only academic departments or faculties for the appropriate subcategory by location. Submit only department pages in English. Alternate languages should be submitted to the appropriate subcategory of World.
In general, this category aims to provide researchers, policy analysts and economic planners WEB links to sources of information as well as discussion fora related to the economics of International Agricultural Trade and of Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture. In particular, the editing of this category is from the perspective of a business economist concerned with the impact of globalization of trade and services on firms as a result of the Uruguay Round General Agreement on Tariff and Trade. Although in agreement with the economic theories presented in support of such Agreement, it is foreseen that, in practice, the transition (or failure thereof) by the formerly protected domestic agribusiness firms into globally competitive industry players may and have caused households considerable suffering.
Sites dealing with agriculture primarily are NOT appropriate.
Conferences, courses, meetings, seminars, workshops and other events in Economics.
Please submit only general economics conferences or conferences for specific sub-fields which do not have a separate subcategory. English language sites only, please.
Websites about the relationships between consumption and wealth, and the issues around them.
This site is for pages and organizations of national or international interest relating to economic development.
U.S. local economic development agencies should submit their site to the most accurate category within their state in Regional: North America: United States.

Local and community development groups should submit their sites to Science: Social Sciences: Urban and Regional Planning: Community and Economic Development.

Environmental consultants should submit their sites to Science: Environment: Products and Services: Consultants.

Organizations concerned with real estate development should submit their site to Business: Real Estate: Commercial: Economic Development Agencies.

Multilateral development banks should submit their site to Business: Financial Services: Banking Services: Banks and Institutions: Development Banks: Multilateral.

Econometrics is concerned with developing and applying quantitative statistical and mathematical methods in order to gain insight about the principles of economics. It is the combination of economic theory and statistics and is used to analyze and test economic relationships. Although there is a large amount of overlap between econometrics and statistics, a key difference is that statistics is generally studied in the context of controlled experiments while econometrics is carried out using observational data involving agents that interact with each other.
Please suggest only general-interest econometrics resources for this category. For books, homepages of econometricians, publications, software, and source code, please see the relevant subcategories.
Economic history is the study of how economic phenomena evolved in the past. This category contains links to sites offering economic and business histories.

For quicker placement in the directory please follow these Submission Tips:

Title: Name of Site or Organization

Description: This describes the website and should note distinguishing features found on the site without the use of hype, personal pronouns, or repetitive terms.

This category focuses on:

* resources useful for the analysis of market and non-market solutions to allocation and distribution problems;
* attempts at and proposals for their reform;
* resources relating to comparative economics.

Definition of "economic system":

A "set of principles and techniques by which the ownership and allocation of economic resources are decided and organized".(from the Encyclopaedia Britannica)
Please make sure your submission meets the category description, i.e. * resources useful for the analysis of market and non-market solutions to allocation and distribution problems;
* attempts at and proposals for their reform;
or * resources relating to comparative economics.
Sites with an educational focus, i.e. which aim to introduce and explain to students or amateurs economic principles and theories. These blogs should focus on broad, common-interest economics topics as opposed to those of a technical nature of interest specifically to economists.
Environmental economics is the study of the economic effects of national or local environmental policies. Particular issues include the costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies to deal with air pollution, water quality, toxic substances, solid waste and global warming.
Please submit only websites that have English language content to this category. If your site is in a language other than English, please submit it to the appropriate category of World.
Evolutionary Economics is part Economic Theory. Most of the evolutionary thought in economics entered recently mainstream economics by research on Evolutionary Game Theory(Refer category Evolutionary Game Theory). Economic evolution is the self-transformation of economic systems under concern. It includes the emergence and diffusion of novelties, irreversible processes etc.
This category is aimed at sites of scholars, academics, students, professionals and any other person or institution generating and divulging research in the field of Financial Economics. Financial Economics is a continuously evolving field, and so will this category. We intend to host sites offering working papers, published papers, data sources, research links and bibliography related to the more traditional areas of Asset Pricing, Theoretical and Empirical Corporate Finance, Financial Econometrics, Market Microstructure, Continuous Time Finance, Fixed Income, International Finance, Banking, and Markets and Institutions. We will also look forward to sites related to the new frontiers of Finance such as Behavioral Finance, Venture Capital, Currency Microstructure, etc.
Submit ONLY sites pertaining to the academic study of financial economics. Consulting firms, development agencies, banks, and financial services are NOT appropriate topics for this category and will not be accepted. Personal home pages of scholars should be submitted to the appropriate subcategory of Science/Social_Sciences/Economics/Economists/.
The category deals with information concerning forecasting and economic consulting services performed and/or available through firms providing professional economic services.
The major driving concepts for this classification are (a) Firms (b) The practice and application of economics (c) Reasonable information value A significant expertise or core specialisation in economic disciplines is expected in this classification. Firms providing general business, strategic business policy, market research, mergers and acquisitions, financial engineering, expert witnesses, etc or public relations practices are not intended for listing here. General consulting firms should consider other categories even where a part of the firm has some specialisation in forecasting or economic consulting. Industry based consultants e.g. oil industry consultants, construction or building industry consultants, etc are advised to consider other business classifications, particularly if the core of the practice lies in other disciplines e.g. engineering, engineering management, geological issues. However there is adequate scope for consulting firms specialising in microeconomic studies in one or a few industry sectors to be listed here, and whether a listing is appropriate here (as against another category) will depend on the content of the site. Sites should provide a reasonable amount of information to the general browser. Sites that comprise very general claims to expertise without summaries of projects or professional staff would rank lower than sites where such information is provided. Sites containing promotional material or promotional slant to the description of services provided will be tolerated, however sites that provide information about issues, sample results, methodologies or solutions will receive greater preference. Sites that require paid membership or subscriptions to access significant amounts of the information on the site will not be listed (e.g. "teaser" headline links which exclude access to general readership for the information content) Sites predominantly featuring advertising links or graphics (relative to information material) will not be favourably considered. Sites with internal code which prevents browsers from back return off the site will not be listed. Firms that submit a further listing under a different domain for the same firm, when an existing URL is already listed may be dropped from the category - please note ODP guidelines against spamming practices.
Game theory is a mathematical theory of strategic interaction developed by economists, mathematicians and biologists.
Please submit only active web pages of game theory conferences.
Please do not submit sites here for unofficial statistic gatherers, nor for consultants, nor for forecasting companies. (They most likely should be submitted under Business.)

More local statistical offices, such as state or province, should be submitted under Regional.

This category is for sites with English content. For multilingual sites, please submit the main URL, if the link to the English content is clear. Otherwise, submit the main English page. The site can also be submitted under World for each other language it uses.

Please include the country or multilateral organization name in the title, along with the official name of the statistical office.


Institutions govern economic processes. Examples of economic institutions are norms, laws and markets.
Devoted to the study of international economics as an academic discipline.
Do NOT submit consulting firms, international trade companies, development or trade organizations, or multinational organizations.

Only submit sites dedicated to the study of the ACADEMIC pursuit of international trade.

Only submit research institutes, centers, and networks that focus on labor economics.
This category contains web resources related to macroeconomics.
Submissions should deal with macroeconomic topics. In time, specific categories will be set up, if enough sites are found to warrant the additional subcategory. Sites of a more general nature should consider Science: Social Sciences: Economics, or any other the categories therein.
Microeconomics: The study of the behaviour of small economic units, such as individual consumers, households or companies. It focuses on the determination of the prices that induce these agents to act, including wages for labour and return rates of investment funds. These concerns cover issues of demand and supply, welfare and distribution.
This subcategory is for organizations of economists and those pursuing the academic study of economics.
This category is intended for organizations related to scholarly or academic work in economics only.

Do not submit any of the following, as they will not be accepted into this category:

  • Economic development agencies, chambers of commerce, business/industry/trade associations, labor unions, investment groups, or any other organization formed for an interest other than the advancement of the field of economics
  • Institutes and think tanks whose research primarily impacts public policy rather than the advancement of the field of economics itself
  • Sites in languages than English (these sites should be sent to the appropriate section of the World/ hierarchy)
  • Any other site geared to commerce, government or politics, or other areas not directly related to the scholarly field of economics
"An odder group of men ... could scarcely be imagined. There were among them a philosopher and a madman, a cleric and a stockbroker, a revolutionary and a nobleman, an aesthete, a skeptic, and a tramp. They were of every nationality, of every walk of life, of every turn of temperament... Thus is was neither their personalities, their careers, their biases, nor even their ideas that bound them together. Their common denominator was something else: a common curiosity. They were all fascinated by the world about them... Hence they can be called the worldly philosophers, for they sought to embrace in a scheme of philosophy the most worldly of all a man's activities -- his drive for wealth." from Heilbroner's The Worldly Philosophers, Sixth Edition
Please submit your web page to this site if you are a Doctoral student in Economics and provide your PhD topic classification numbers according to the JEL classification code. Also provide details of your Doctoral Committee and an abstract of your thesis. Your homepage must include more than a CV. Ideally links to research should be included.
Political Economy is an interdisciplinary field borrowing from not only Political Science and Economics, but also Anthropology, Sociology, Public Policy, and other social sciences. Political Economy is most commonly defined as the study of the interaction between politics and economics within the national, international, and global spheres. It can also refer to an analysis of political systems using an economic perspective and theories. Links listed in this section are websites that provide information, data, essays, research, or studies that relates to any definition of political economy. In addition, links of relevant institutes, foundations, or centers are also included.
Please only submit journals dealing with Asian/Pacific issues.
Much economic debate has not so much centered around individual economists, but around competing schools of thought. A school of thought is a group of economists who accept broadly the same methods and assumptions.
If the article relates primarily to a certain economist please submit it to Economics : People. If the school is not defined here, please submit it in the main section.
Sports Economics is a branch of study which investigates both the dynamics of economic exchange within sporting and the relationship of the sports industry to business and society. Sports economists examine questions of salaries and labor relations, impact of merchandising, public financing of facilities, and the general impact of the athletic world on the economy.
Submissions to this category should be of interest to academics and industry professionals.

Do not submit gambling sites, general team or player fan sites, sites selling sporting goods or sports merchandise or memorabilia, or any other site which does not have a primarily scholarly orientation. Such sites may be appropriate for listing elsewhere in the directory, such as the Sports hierarchy, Shopping/Sports, or Games/Gambling/Sports.

Urban Economics is the study of resource-oriented behaviors and technologies in relation to human settlements, and of the consequent states and dynamics. Like any economic discipline, it has positive and normative subsets - concerned, respectively, with what actually occurs and with what should be happening (from any particular perspective). In Urban Economics, these subsets are often quite closely integrated, so the interpretation of content requires particular care.
This category''s principal concern is urban economics as a field of study. Although it is recognized that much of the world''s knowledge in this field is held outside the traditional academic sector, please submit into this category sites whose content contributes to the global knowledge base or locates centres of relevant expertise.

Sites with a commercial emphasis are often more properly the realm of the Business hierarchy. More ephemeral material might more reasonably be submitted to an appropriate subcategory of Society/Issues.

Finally, this category is for sites containing substantial material in the English language. As a courtesy, content not complying with this requirement will be redirected elsewhere within the Open Directory Project, as accurately as we are able to do this.