"Landscape archaeology can be defined as the investigation of the long term relationship between people and their environment at a regional scale." (G. Barker 1986) The term has described a variety of disciplines and activities, such as surface and aerial surveys and the study of old maps, used for the observation and analysis of patterns in the landscape. Modern usage tends to describe site-based rather than artifact-based studies, and includes the study of ethnoarchaeology, formation processes and taphonomy to understand the formation of the record from when it was deposited to when it is recorded.