Classical organisms made of cells, is a special case of a
more general concept. Generalized or abstract organism can be made of the other organisms; for example an 'ant hill' can be viewed as a single organism, made of mostly of individual ants or society as an organism made of individuals.
The individual units may be anorganic (robots) or exist
only in a computer (artificial life).
Such complex systems, which like classical organisms exhibit goal-oriented behaviour are called abstract organisms.
Superorganism: Gaia, Global brain and systems of artificial
life models and systems of interacting intelligent agents
Gaia Hypothesis or Gaia Theory looks at planet Earth
(and other living planets which we may encounter in the future) as an instance of a living organism.
It is not an organism on classical sense, but it can
been considered a special case of a more general concept,
concept of generalised or abstract organism.