"Complex systems" is an emerging field of science which generalises certain aspects of sociology, biology, physics and other traditional disciplines of science, as well as engineering, management, and medicine. It deals with systems composed of number of smaller units (complex particles) and studies their mutual interaction and their interaction with the system environment.

"Complex systems" concerns the nature and consequences of interactions and non-linearities in systems of many objects. It includes topics such as artificial life, cellular automata, chaos, criticality, evolutionary computation, fractals, parallel computation, self-organization."
Classical organisms made of cells, is a special case of a more general concept. Generalized or abstract organism can be made of the other organisms; for example an 'ant hill' can be viewed as a single organism, made of mostly of individual ants or society as an organism made of individuals. The individual units may be anorganic (robots) or exist only in a computer (artificial life). Such complex systems, which like classical organisms exhibit goal-oriented behaviour are called abstract organisms.
Superorganism: Gaia, Global brain and systems of artificial life models and systems of interacting intelligent agents
Conferences, courses, meetings, seminars,workshops and other events in the Mathematics of Complex Systems.
Evolution of Complexity and Evolution to Equilibrium both exhibit the Arrow of Time (see category 'Time and Timelessness'). Here we list Generalised Dynamical Systems, which can describe, model and explain such behavior.
Includes traditional dynamical systems, starting with classical dynamics of point particles, irreversible statistical mechanics, Lotka-Volterra population dynamics and dynamics of complex particles, deterministic, chaotic and stochastic.
papers and articles available on the web as well as hard copy journals for Complex Systems.
Open and subscription journals are listed. Symbol $ may be added to description when subscription is required.
Complex Systems use Computer models and simulation as their principal tools. Models in this category will be classified according to their area of application: evolution, global or planetary models (Gaia studies), societal models (swarm) .. This subcategory is intended for methodology of the simulation and model building, general issues which apply to all models, testing, reduction, validation..
Research groups devoted to study of Complex Systems
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