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Atmospheric science involves the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on it and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
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Providers of data for the earth sciences.
This category is for educational earth science class websites and resources. Please find the most specific category within this category when submitting your site.

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Careers advice and employment information in Earth Sciences.
This category is for any website that deals with any aspect of the field of geochemistry which does not have a more specific sub-category in this directory.
Geochemistry is the study of chemical elements and their isotopes, and their distribution and abundance within minerals, ores, rocks, waters, and the atmosphere. Geochemistry also includes the dynamic aspects of reaction and circulation of the elements in nature. While geochemistry is most often used in reference to the Earth, it also applies to the study of the chemical elements and their isotopes on the moon and other planets.
This category is for the topic of geologic time and techniques and tools to measure geologic time.

Sites discussing the age of the earth from a Biblical perspective, including discussions of interpreting scientific observations to support the Genesis account of creation and earth history, do not belong here. Submit them to Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Christianity/Perspectives/Origins_and_Creation

Geology is the study of Earth history, structure, composition and life forms.
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The study of gathering and processing geographic information, as well as sharing this information. Some major subfields of this area include surveying, mapping and global positioning systems.

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Geophysics involves the application of physical theories and measurements to discover the properties of the earth. The discipline dates to antiquity, mainly as a scientific approach to earthquake prediction (a problem still unsolved), but major progress began in the late 1500s with initial work in such areas as magnetism and gravity. Tremendous improvements in instrumentation in the early years of the 20th century generated rapid progress in geophysics and ultimately led, in the 1960s, to the theory of plate tectonics. Plate tectonics, the study of the interior structure of the earth, and such related areas as global and regional processes are known collectively as solid earth geophysics. The subdiscipline known as exploration geophysics involves the use of geophysical theory and instrumentation to locate petroleum and other mineral sources. Unlike solid earth geophysics, exploration geophysics generally concentrates on finding lateral heterogeneities in a relatively small part of the earth's crust. Geophysics is considered by some to be a branch of geology, by others to be of equal rank. It is distinguished from the other earth sciences largely by its use of instruments to make direct or indirect measurements of the parts of the Earth being studied, in contrast to the more direct observations which are typical of geology. The following definitions are from Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics. 1. The study of the earth by quantitative physical method, especially by seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, and radioactivity methods. 2. The application of physical principles to studies of the earth. Includes the branches of (a) seismology (earthquakes and elastic waves); (b) geothermometry (heating of the earth, heat flow, volcanology, and hot springs); (c) hydrology (ground and surface water, sometimes including glaciology); (d) physical oceanography; (e) meteorology; (f) gravity and geodesy (the earth's gravitational field and the size and form of the earth); (g) atmospheric electricity and terrestrial magnetism (including ionosphere, Van Allen belts, telluric currents, etc.); (h) tectonophysics (geological processes in the earth); and (i) exploration and engineering geophysics. Geochronology (the dating of earth history) and geocosmogony (the origin of the earth) are sometimes added to the foregoing list. 3. Often refers to solid-earth geophysics only, thus excluding (c), (d), (e), and portions of other subjects from the above list. 4. Exploration geophysics is the use of seismic, gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, etc., methods in the search for oil, gas, minerals, water, etc., with the objective of economic exploitation.
This category serves as a collection and reference point for those parts of earth science concerned with earthquakes, hurricanes, and other natural events causing damage and destruction. Resources include educational materials for dealing with natural disasters, links to other categories exploring more particular hazards, and research on disasters as such.
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Oceanography and marine science directory
The study and representation of the earth's geographic features and climate as it was at any time before the present.
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Paleontology is the study of past life, mostly through fossils, which are the preserved remains of ancient life forms.
This category includes resources related to the science of paleontology, as well as for collectors of fossils.
The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period after the Neogene Period roughly 2.588 million years ago to the present.
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Last update: Tuesday, June 18, 2013 1:32:18 AM EDT - edit