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Rachel Louise Carson (1907-1964) earned a master's degree in zoology and had a career working on publications for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. She became known, however, for her writings on nature and on man's relationship to the natural environment, chiefly "Silent Spring," published in 1962, which addressed the risks of pesticides to wildlife The influence of the book was so great that Carson has been called the mother of the modern environmental movement. Other books by Carson include "Under the Sea Wind" and "The Sea Around Us."
Charles Darwin (1809-82), English biologist best remembered as the principal originator of the theory of evolution by natural selection. His most famous work is "On the Origin of Species," published in 1859.
Lamarck's scientific theories were largely ignored or attacked during his lifetime; Lamarck never won the acceptance and esteem of his colleagues Buffon and Cuvier, and he died in poverty and obscurity. Today, the name of Lamarck is associated merely with a discredited theory of heredity, the "inheritance of acquired traits." However, Charles Darwin, Lyell, Haeckel, and other early evolutionists acknowledged him as a great zoologist and as a forerunner of evolution.
Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822 in Dole, in the region of Jura, France. His discovery that most infectious diseases are caused by germs, known as the "germ theory of disease," is one of the most important in medical history. His work became the foundation for the science of microbiology, and a cornerstone of modern medicine.
Independent co-discoverer, at about the same time as Darwin, of the principle of evolution by natural selection.