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A North-East (Isan) province, bordering Laos. Located in the Mekong Valley, bordered by Ubon Ratchathani, Yasothon and Mukdahan provinces. The province is located in the Mekong valley. A long footpath along some of the river allows people to enjoy the view. In dry season, from February to May, water in Mekong River descends, and allows islands to appear. Such famous islands include Kaeng Tanglang at Si Sombun Village, close to Amphoe Chanuman, and Kaeng Hin Khan at Ban Hin Khan, 30 kilometres south of Amphoe Chanuman. The other two rivers in the province are the Lam Sae Bok and Lam Sae Bai.
Ang Thong is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand. The name means "golden bowl" which refer to Angthong as a central for prosperity as it has a lot of rice fields. The neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Sing Buri, Lopburi, Ayutthaya and Suphanburi. It is luxurious of native handicraft like, molded court dolls, firebrick, and wickerwork. In Ang Thong, there are more than 200 magnificent and interesting temples, appropriate for Thai chronological study.

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Bangkok is the capital, largest urban area and primary city of Thailand. Known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon, meaning "city of angels" for short, it was originally a small trading post on the west bank of the lower Chao Phraya River during the Ayutthaya Kingdom. It became the capital in 1768 after the destruction of Ayutthaya by Burmese invaders. However, the current Rattanakosin Kingdom did not begin until 1782, when the capital was moved to the east bank of the river by Rama I following the death of King Taksin. The city is more formally called Phra Nakhon, referring to the original boundaries of the 18th century, while the name Krungthep Mahanakorn includes the urban areas which have since grown. Foreigners generally call the city by its original name of Bangkok.
Buri Ram is one of the north-eastern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Sa Kaeo, Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Maha Sarakham and Surin. To the south-east it borders Oddar Meancheay of Cambodia. The name Buri Ram means city of happiness.
Chachoengsao's neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Prachin Buri, Sa Kaeo, Chanthaburi, Chon Buri, Samut Prakan, Bangkok, Pathum Thani and Nakhon Nayok. It also has a short coast to the Gulf of Thailand. Chachoengsao or Paet Rio is a province in the Central region. It has an old history back to the reign of King Borommatrailokkanat in the Ayutthaya period. Most of the people have settled by the Bang Pakong River and along canals. “Luangpho Phuttha Sothon” is a centre of faith of the people of Paet Rio. In the past, Chachoengsao was a fourth class city under the Ministry of Defence. During the reign of King Rama I, it was attached to the Ministry of Interior. Until the reign of King Rama V who changed the administration system, Chachoengsao became a city in the Prachin Buri Circle. In 1916, its status was changed from a city to a province. “Chacheongsao” is a Khmer word which means a deep canal. The name “Paet Rio” comes from the story that the city once teemed with giant snake-head fish; up to 8 cuts were required on the sides in making sun-dried fish.
Chaiyaphum is a province and town in the Isan region of Thailand. The province is cut into two halves by the Phetchabun mountain range, with the highest elevation in the province at 1222 m. The east of the province belongs to the Khorat Plateau. Four national parks are located in the province. The Tat Thon National Park is in north-west of the province, featuring some scenic waterfalls and dry dipterocarp forests. The biggest attraction of the Sai Thong National Park in the west of the province is the Sai Thong waterfall, but also some fields of the Siam Tulip. Similar fields can be found in the Pa Hin Ngam National Park in the south-west, scheduled to be gazetted in the future. This park has its name from the strangely shaped rock formations found there (beautiful rock forest). Phu Laenkha National Park covers another 200 km of forested hills northwest of Chaiyaphum city.
Chainat is one of the central provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Nakhon Sawan, Sing Buri, Suphan Buri and Uthai Thani. Chai Nat is located in the flat river plain of central Thailand's Chao Phraya River valley. In the south of the province the Chao Phraya (formerly Chai Nat) Dam impounds the Chao Phraya river, both for flood control as well as to divert water into the country's largest irrigation system for the irrigation of rice paddies in the lower river valley. The dam, part of the Greater Chao Phraya Project, was finished in 1957 and was the first dam constructed in Thailand.
After the Paknam crisis in 1893 the French colonist troops occupied Chanthaburi, returning it in 1905 when Thailand gave up ownership of the western part of Cambodia. A significant minority of Chanthaburi citizens are native Vietnamese, who came there in three waves - first in the 19th century during an anti-Catholic persecution in Cochin China, a second wave came in the 1920s to 1940s fleeing from French Indochina, and a third one after the communist victory in Vietnam in 1975. Thus the town of Chanthaburi is the seat of a Bishop of Chanthaburi since 1944.
This category and all sub-categories are for sites emanating from and relating to Chiang Mai, Thailand. All sites submitted here should either be predominantly in the English language or have English as one of a choice of languages; sites in the Thai language only should be sent to World/Thai.
Chiang Mai is the second-largest province of Thailand, located in the north of the country. Neighboring provinces are (from northeast clockwise) Chiang Rai, Lampang, Lamphun, Tak, and Mae Hong Son. In the north it borders Shan State of Burma. Chiang Mai recently started to position itself as a Creative City (Chiang Mai Creative City) and is considering to apply to become a UNESCO Creative City.
The average elevation of the province is 580 m. The north of the province belongs to the so-called Golden Triangle, at which the borders of Thailand, Laos and Myanmar converge - an area which was very unsafe because of the drug smuggling across the borders. The Mekong river forms the boundary with Laos, the Mae Sai and Ruak River to Myanmar. Through the town of Chiang Rai itself flows the Kok River. While the eastern part of the province is relatively flat river plains, the western part consists of the mountainous terrain of the Hills of Northern Thailand. While not the highest elevation of the province, the 1389 m high Doi Tung (Flag hill) is the most important hill. The Wat Phra That Doi Tung temple on top of the hill according to the chronicles dates back to the year 911. Nearby is the Doi Tung royal villa, former residence of the Late Princess mother (mother of the present king) Somdej Phra Srinagarindra. Thanks to her activities the hills were reforested, and the hill tribes changed from growing poppy to other crops.
Chonburi's neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Chachoengsao, Chanthaburi and Rayong. To the west is the Gulf of Thailand. The eastern seaboard is heavily industrialized and underpinned by shipping, transportation, tourism, and manufacturing industries, and second to only Bangkok in economic output.
Chumphon is located on the Isthmus of Kra, the narrow landbridge connecting the Malay Peninsula with the mainland of Thailand. To the west are the hills of the Phuket mountain range and its northern continuation, the Tenasserim chain, while the east is the more flat land at the coat to the Gulf of Thailand. The main river is the Lang Suan, which originates in Phato district.
Most of the province is covered by hilly landscape. In the north is the Lam Pao dam built 1963-68, storing 1,430 million m of water for flood prevention and agriculture. The Lam Pao reservoir effectively cuts the northern part of the province in half but there are car ferries connecting the district of Sahatsakhan in the east with the district Nong Kung Si in the west, saving up to one hour off the journey by road. On the northwestern creek of the reservoir a road bridge now connects the village of Ban Dong Bang in the west with the district town of Wang Sam Mo in the east. Although the bridge was constructed several years ago (pre 2000) it is not featured (2006) on any commercially available road maps. Making the border with Sakhon Nakhon Province is the Phu Phan mountain range, which is preserved as a national park.
The main river of the province is the Ping, one of the sources of the Chao Phraya river. River flats make up much of the east of the province, while the west is mostly mountains covered with forests. One of the most well-known products of the province is banana. Banana festivals take place in the province every year, to thank the gods for the harvest.
A province in the Central Plains, Kanchanaburi borders Burma to the west with the Tanaosi range as a borderline. It is frequented by tourists who have been attracted by its long history and ancient civilizations, a location of the Bridge over the River Khwae – ‘Kwai’ as it is known internationally and scene of the historic World War II. Producers of the movie the Bridge Over the River Kwae are guilty of giving the river and bridge both the wrong spelling and mis-pronunciaton. It is pronounced ‘Kwae’ as in the English word ‘Hair’. The province is also famous for its natural attractions such as forests, mountains, caves and waterfalls.
Khon Kaen is the second-largest of the north-eastern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Nongbua Lamphu, Udon Thani, Kalasin, Maha Sarakham, Buriram, Nakhon Ratchasima, Chaiyaphum, Phetchabun and Loei.
Krabi is one of the southern provinces of Thailand, at the shore of the Andaman Sea. Neighbouring provinces are (from north clockwise) Phang Nga, Surat Thani, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Trang. The Phuket province to the west is also neighbouring, but without any land boundary. The capital of the region is the city of Krabi.
Lampang is one of the northern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Chiang Rai, Phayao, Phrae, Sukhothai, Tak, Lamphun and Chiang Mai. The old name of Lampang is Khelang Nakhon. Lampang is located in the broad river valley of the Wang River, surrounded by mountain chains. In the Mae Mo district lignite is found and mined in open pits. To the north of the province is the 1697 m high Doi Luang. Within the province are the national parks Tham Pha Thai, Chae Son, Doi Khun Than, as well as the Huay Tak Teak Biosphere Reserve.
Lamphun is located in the river valley of the Ping River, surrounded by mountain chains. It is some 670 kilometres from Bangkok and only 26 kilometres from Chiang Mai. Under its old name of Haripunchai, Lamphun was the northernmost city of the Mon kingdom of the Dvaravati period, and also the last to fall to the Thai. In the late 12th century it came under siege from the Khmer, but did not fall. However in 1281 King Mengrai of Lanna finally seized the city, and made it part of his kingdom. After Burmese expansion in the sixteenth century, Lamphun was also under Burmese rule for two centuries. In the eighteenth century, with the rise of Thonburi and Bangkok against Burmese rule, local leaders from Lampang agreed to be their allies. Lamphun was finally free from the Burmese and ruled by relative of Lampang's leader, gaining vassal status from Bangkok. Eventually after the administrative reform of Bangkok government in late nineteenth century, Lamphun became a part, as a province, of Siam or late Kingdom of Thailand.
Loei is one of the most sparsely populated provinces of Thailand, located in the North-East of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from east clockwise) Nong Khai, Udon Thani, Nongbua Lamphu, Khon Kaen, Phetchabun, Phitsanulok. In the north it borders Xaignabouli and Vientiane Province of Laos. Loei is a city surrounded by undulating mountain ranges whose summits are covered by foggy lines, abundant with various kinds of flora. The well-known ones are Phu Kradueng, Phu Luang and Phu Ruea.
Lop Buri is located on the east side of the Chao Phraya river valley, between the Lopburi River and Pa Sak Rivers. 30% of the area of the province, including most of Tha Wung district, the southwestern parts of Mueang Lopburi and Ban Mi districts are a very low alluvial plain. The rest 70% is intermixed between plains and hills, with the Phetchabun Mountains form the eastern boundary of the province towards the Khorat Plateau.

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Founded as a training camp for elephants by the Royal Family in the early 19th century, Mae Hong Son, the City of Three Mists, is located in the northwestern region of Thailand. The province, bordering Myanmar (Burma), has the lowest population density in the Kingdom with half of the peoples belonging to ethnic hilltribes, the Karen being the largest of these groups. Architecturally, temples (wats) in Mae Hong Son province differ markedly from those elsewhere in the country due to a strong Shan (Burmese) influence.
Maha Sarakham is one of the provinces (changwat) of Thailand, located in the northeastern (Isan) region of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Kalasin, Roi Et, Surin, Buriram and Khon Kaen. The province's capital is the town of Maha Sarakham. It is the home of Mahasarakham University, the largest university in the Northeast of Thailand in term of students (37,342), and Rajabhat Mahasarakham University.
Mukdahan is one of the north-eastern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from south clockwise) Amnat Charoen, Yasothon, Roi Et, Kalasin, Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom. To the east it borders the Mekong River, across which lies Savannakhet Province of Laos.
Nakhon Nayok is one of the central provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Saraburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, Prachinburi, Chachoengsao and Pathum Thani. Nakhon Nayok is renowned for its refreshing waterfalls and abundant varieties of fruits.
Nakhon Pathom is one of the central provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Suphan Buri, Ayutthaya, Nonthaburi, Bangkok, Samut Sakhon, Ratchaburi and Kanchanaburi. The province is famous for an ancient stupa called the “Phra Pathom Chedi”, though the actual chedi is completely concealed under a larger one built in the 19th century. The chedi is a reminder of the long vanished Dvaravadi civilisation that once flourished here and by tradition Nakhorn Pathom is where Buddhism first came to Thailand. The province itself is renowned for its many fruit orchards.
The province is located at the valley of the river Mekong and is mostly plain. In the northern part of the province has more upland character, and forest covered plains. The main river in the northern part is the Songkhram River and the smaller Oun river. The southern part is more flat, and has the Kum river as only notable river. The provincial capital, the city of Nakhon Phanom, is located directly at the banks of the Mekong. Phu Lang Ka National Park covers 50 km of forests and hills, and includes the waterfalls Tat Kham and Tat Pho as its most popular attractions. Also flowers like the Lady Slipper Orchid and diverse wildlife is found in the park.
Nakhon Ratchasima is a city in the north-east of Thailand and gateway to Isan. It is the capital of the Nakhon Ratchasima Province and Nakhon Ratchasima district. As of August 16, 2010, in the municipal area has a population of 142,645. The city is also commonly known as Korat, a short version of the full name. It is located at the western edge of the Khorat Plateau and historically marked the boundary between the Lao and Siamese territory, however now is considered a gateway to the Northeast (Isan).
The Ping and Nan rivers merge near the city of Nakhon Sawan to form the Chao Phraya River. The Mae Wong National Park on the border with Khamphaeng Phet province was created in 1987 to preserve the Mae Wong-Mae Poen jungle. Bueng Boraphet is the largest freshwater swamp in Thailand, in total covering 212 km. The swamp is located directly east of the town Nakhon Sawan and extends into the districts Tha Tako and Chum Saeng. During the winter months many waterfowls migrate there. Parts of the swamp are protected as a non-hunting area.
Nakhon Si Thammarat is one of the southern provinces of Thailand, at the eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from south clockwise) Songkhla, Phatthalung, Trang, Krabi and Surat Thani. The province is located on the shore of the Gulf of Thailand on the east side of the Malay Peninsula. The terrain is mostly rugged hilly forest area. It contains the highest elevation of southern Thailand, the Khao Luang with 1,835 m, now protected in the Khao Luang national park.
The province is located in the remote valley of the Nan River, surrounded by mountains covered with forests. The highest mountain is the 2079 meter high Doi Phu Kha in Amphoe Pua, north-east of the city of Nan towards the border with Laos.
Narathiwat is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from west clockwise) Yala and Pattani. To the south it borders the Malaysian state of Kelantan. The southern railway line ends in this province that is one of the nation’s five provinces that borders Malaysia. The name of this province means “the residence of good people”. The province features a range of cultures as well as natural resources, and is relatively fertile. Narathiwat is located some 1,140 kilometers south of Bangkok and occupies an area of 4,475 square kilometers. Seventy five percent of the area is jungles and mountains. The area has a tropical climate.
During the existence of the Laotian kingdom of Lan Xang, Nong Bua Lam Phu was traditionally given to rule to the crown prince. In 1827 Chao Anou of Vientiane designated Phagna Narin to be the governor of this place, which is famous as the spot where the Naresuan, the King-Liberator of Siam, came in the sixteenth century to learn the outcome of a war between the Lao and Burmese in the Vientiane area. Nong Bua Lam Phu was long a Lao stronghold, and was the birthplace of the principal wife of Chao Siribunyasan, the last independent king of Vientiane. Under Thai rule, the province originally consisted of five Amphoe (districts) in the province Udon Thani. In 1993 Udon province was decentralized and a separate province of Nong Bua Lamphu was created. It is one of the three youngest provinces of Thailand, together with Amnat Charoen and Sa Kaeo.
Nong Khai is located in the valley of the Mae Nam Kong (Mekong river), which also forms the border with Laos. There are highlands to the south. The Laotian capital Vientiane is only 25 kilometers away from the provincial capital of Nong Khai. The Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge, which connects the two countries, was built jointly by the governments of Thailand, Laos and Australia, and was opened in 1994.
Nonthaburi is located directly northwest of Bangkok on the Chao Phraya river. The province is part of the greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area. In most parts it is as urbanized as the capital, and the boundary between the two provinces is nearly unrecognisable.
Pathum Thani is located directly north of Bangkok and is part of the Bangkok metropolis. In many parts the boundary between the two provinces is not noticeable anymore, since both sides of the boundary are being equally urbanized. Pathum Thani town is the administrative seat, but Ban Rangsit, seat of Thanyaburi district, is the largest populated place within the provincial boundary. Pathum Thani is an old province filled with multiple temples, parks and areas to experience Mon culture. A lot of the modern knowledge, culture and history are presented in the museums and temples. The most famous amusement park in Thailand, Dream World, is also set there. In addition, it is a source of Mon culture and traditions by the Chaophaya River that shows the special characteristic of their culture.
Pattani is located on the Malay Peninsula, with the coast of the Gulf of Thailand in the north. In the south mountainous landscape with the Sankalakhiri mountain range, including the Budo - Su-ngai Padi National Park, is located at the border to Yala and Narathiwat, protecting hill forests with rare vegetation such as the Bangsoon palm and Takathong rattan, as well as birds like the hornbill. Namtok Sai Khao on the border with Songkhla and Yala is a forest park, remarkable for the Sai Khao waterfall.
Phang Nga is located on the west side of the Malay Peninsula, and includes many islands of the Phang Nga Bay. The most famous one is the so-called James Bond Island, a needle formed limestone rock in the sea, which featured in the 1974 movie The Man with the Golden Gun. The Ao Phang-Nga (Phang-Nga Bay) National Park was established in 1981 to protect the many fascinating islands. The Similan Islands, one of Thailand's main diving destinations, are also part of Phang Nga province. It is located 788 kilometres (490 mi) from Bangkok and covers an area of 4,170 square kilometres (1,610 sq mi).
Phatthalung is located on the Malay Peninsula. To the east it borders the large shallow Songkhla lake, while the west is covered by mountains of the Nakhon Si Thammarat chain. The Khao Pu - Khao Ya National Park is located in these mountains at the border to Trang. Phatthalung was formerly known as Mardelong in Malay, especially during the time when the region came under Malay-Muslim influence.
After Phayao was founded in 1096 it was a small city-state kingdom. In the 13th century it gained enough importance to be equal partner of King Mengrai of Lannathai and the Sukhothai kingdom. However a later king of Lannathai captured Phayao in 1338, and made it part of Lannathai. During the Burmese rulership of Lannathai the city became deserted, and in 1897 became part of the province Chiang Rai. Becoming effective on August 28, 1977 it was split off from Chiang Rai again, and became a province of its own.
Phetchabun is located in the lower northern region of Thailand, in the area between the northern and the central region. The province lies in the broad fertile river valley of the Pa Sak River, with mountains of the Phetchabun mountain range to the east and west. It is surrounded by places of interest, many well-known national parks, beautiful waterfalls and great lakes.
Phetchaburi is located at the northern end of the Malay Peninsula, with the Gulf of Thailand to the East and the Tanaosi mountain range forming the boundary to Myanmar. Except these border mountains most of the province is a flat plain area. With an area of about 3000 km² the Kaeng Krachan National Park is Thailands largest national park, covering nearly half of the province. It protects mostly rainforests in the mountains along the boundary to Myanmar, but also the Kaeng Krachan reservoir is part of the park. The only significant river of the province is the Phetchaburi River. Several caves are found in the province, most notable the Khao Luang caves near the capital city. Illuminated by a hole in the roof several Buddha statues are placed in the cave.
The rivers Nan and Yom flow through the Phichit province, before they join shortly before the Chao Phraya is formed. The province mainly consists of low fertile river plains, making rice and lotus the main crops. The town Phichit was established in 1058 by Phraya Kotabongthevaraja, and was first part of the Sukhothai kingdom, and later of Ayutthaya. The name of the main city changed several times. At first it was called Sra Luang (city of the royal pond), in Ayutthaya times it was called Okhaburi (city in the swamp), and then finally Phichit (beautiful city).
The lands situated in the present-day Phitsanulok Province were inhabited since the stone age, although the neolithic inhabitants of the region are not likely to have been the ancestors of the modern Thai people who reside there today. The earliest historical records relating to what is now Phitsanulok Province indicates that at a time prior to or during the 11th century, the present-day city of Phitsanulok was but a small strategic Khmer outpost known as Song Khwae. During the next century, in 1188, Nakhon Thai, located near the center of the present Phitsanulok Province, was established as the capital city of the Singhanavati Kingdom, an early city-state of Thailand. Later, during Thailand's Sukhothai Period, the city of Phitsanulok emerged as a major city in the east of the Sukhothai Kingdom, and the great temples of Wat Chula Manee, Wat Aranyik and Wat Chedi Yod Thong were constructed. In 1357, the renowned Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat was erected, and the Ayutthaya Period witnessed the construction of several of the province's other chief temples. Phitsanulok served for 25 years as the capital city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. In 1555, King Naresuan the Great was born in the city of Phitsanulok. Naresuan played a significant role in the history of Thailand, as he expanded the kingdom (then called Siam) to its greatest territorial extent, by conquering sizable portions of modern day Burma and Cambodia. In recent times, Phitsanulok Province has become an important agricultural center, part of the Bread Basket of Thailand, providing rice and other crops to consumers in Thailand and throughout the world.
The history of Phrae dates back to the Haripunchai kingdom of the Mon. It became part of the Lannathai kingdom in 1443, when King Tilokaraj was on an expedition to capture Nan.
Ayutthaya was founded in 1350 by King U-Thong. It was the capital of Thailand (then called Siam) for 417 years from 1350 until it was sacked by the Burmese army in 1767. During this era, now usually referred as the Ayutthaya period or Ayutthaya kingdom, Ayutthaya was ruled by 33 kings of 5 different dynasties. The Kingdom became a major regional player, and a trade center of the East, a meeting point of European merchants and Asian traders. Notable monarchs during the Ayutthaya period include King Naresuan the Great, who liberated Ayutthaya from the first Burmese occupation and embarked on a reign of conquest, and King Narai the Great, who initiated diplomatic relations with the France, during the reign of Louis XIV. His reign was the golden age of trade and culture. The city was positioned in a strategic position. During several months of the year, the flood plains around the cities would be flooded by the many rivers around the city. Enemy sieges were thus impossible, and forced to withdraw. This advantage was a contributing factor in the many failed Burmese invasions.
Phuket, which is approximately the size of Singapore, is Thailand’s largest island. The island is connected to mainland Thailand by two bridges. It is situated off the west coast of Thailand in the Andaman Sea. Phuket formerly derived its wealth from tin and rubber, and enjoyed a rich and colorful history. The island was on one of the major trading routes between India and China, and was frequently mentioned in foreign ship logs of Portuguese, French, Dutch and English traders.
Prachin Buri is divided into two major parts, the low river valley of the Prachin Buri River, and the higher lands with plateaus and mountains of the Sankambeng Range, the southern prolongation of the Dong Phaya Yen mountains. In those areas are also two national parks, Khao Yai and the Tab Larn National Park.
Prachuap Khiri Khan is one of the central provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Phetchaburi in the north and Chumphon in the south. To the west it borders Tanintharyi Division of Myanmar. Prachuap Khiri Khan, or commonly referred to as simply Prachup, is a province located in the lower central region 93km south of Hua Hin. While much smaller and quieter than Hua Hin, Prachuap is actually the provincial capital of the same-named province. It connects with the South of Thailand and possesses various interesting tourist attractions such as beaches, islands, forests and mountains.
Ranong is located on the Kra Isthmus, the narrow strip that connects mainland Thailand with the Malay Peninsula, on the west side of the Phuket mountain range. It has a long coast on the Andaman Sea. The province is known for having the most rainfall of all Thailand, the rainy season lasting for about eight months. In 1955 the annual rainfall reached 6,699.5 mm, compared to about 1,200 in central Thailand. The province is the least populated province of Thailand; 80% of the area is covered by forests, and 67% is mountainous terrain. Historically the major industry was tin mining, but most mines are now exhausted. White clay mining for the production of porcelain and fishing are the main industries today, together with rubber and cashew nut farming.
Ratchaburi is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram and Phetchaburi. In the west it borders Tanintharyi Division of Myanmar. Ratchaburi means, "The land of the king." The province is full of cultural heritage, beautiful places, and historical sites. Ratchaburi covers 5200 square kilometers. It is located 80 kilometers west of Bangkok and borders Burma to the west with the Tanaosi range as a borderline. It has Mea Klong River through the center of town.
Rayong's neighboring provinces are (from west clockwise) Chon Buri and Chanthaburi. To the south is the Gulf of Thailand. Although the north is hilly, the province consists mostly of low coastal plains. Several islands in the Gulf of Thailand belong to the province, including the popular tourist destinations, Ko Samet, Ko Mun and Ko Kodi.
Roi Et is located in the North-East of Thailand. Neighboring Provinces are (from north clockwise) Kalasin, Mukdahan, Yasothon, Sisaket, Surin and Maha Sarakham. The Name Roi Et translates to 101, which refers to the original 11 satellite cities around the main city as well as the 11 city gates. To express the importance of the city the number was exaggerated.
Sakon Nakhon is located on the Khorat Plateau, not far from the river Mekong. The Nong Han lake - the biggest natural lake of North-East Thailand - near the city Sakon Nakhon is a popular resort of the local people. The Phu Phan Mountains delimit the province to the south.
Samut Prakan is located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya river to the Gulf of Thailand. The part of the province located on the western side of the river consists mostly of rice and prawn fields as well as mangrove forests, while the east part is the urban center with industrial factories.
Samut Sakhon is located at the mouth of the Tha Chin Klong river, a distributary of the Chao Phraya river, to the Gulf of Thailand. At the coast to the sea are many fields used for sea salt production.
Samut Songkhram is located at the mouth of the Mae Klong river to the Gulf of Thailand. With several canals the water of the river is spread through the province for irrigation. At the coast are many lakes for producing sea salt. The sandbar Don Hoi Lot at the mouth of the river is famous for its endemic shell population of Solen regularis.
Saraburi is one of the central provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Lopburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Pathum Thani and Ayutthaya. Saraburi has been an important town since ancient times. It is believed to have been constructed in the year 1548 during the reign of King Maha Chakkraphat of Ayutthaya as a centre for recruiting troops.
Satun is located on the Malay Peninsula, on the shore of the Andaman Sea. It is separated from Songkhla Province by the Nakhon Si Thammarat mountain range, and from Malaysia by the Sankalakhiri mountains. The Ko Tarutao and Ko Phetra marine national parks are part of the province. Close to the border with Malaysia is the Thale Ban National Park, a big freshwater swamp area.
Sa Kaeo became a province in 1993, when the six districts Sa Kaeo, Khlong Hat, Wang Nam Yen, Aranya Prathet, Ta Phraya and Watthana Nakhon of Prachin Buri were elevated to provincial status. It is thus one of the three youngest provinces of Thailand, together with Amnat Charoen and Nong Bua Lam Phu.
The area of Singburi hold an important position in early Thai history since Dvaravati period down to Ayutthaya period. Formerly the province separated into 3 small provinces - In Buri, Prom Buri and Sing Buri - which were unified by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in 1895.
The many Khmer ruins found in Sisaket show it must have been important to the Khmer empire at least by the 12th century, although probably sparsely populated. According to local tradition, it was known Sri Nakorn Lamduan. It was later called Khukhan, after a town built in the late 15th century A.D. during the reign of the King Boromaratcha III of Ayutthaya. Ethnic Laos settled the northern portion of the province, and in 1786 the town Sisaket was formed, subject to Khukhan. In 1904, Sisaket was renamed Khukhan, while the original town was designated Huai Nua. Monthon Udon Thani was created in 1912, assuming the administration of the most of area. In 1933 the monthon system was ended, and the province of Khukhan was directly administrated from Bangkok. The name of the town and province was restored to Sisaket in 1938, with the district containing Huai Nua being called Khukhan. The Rasi Salai Dam built here in 1994 was unofficially decommissioned in July 2000 following devastation of local farming villages.
Songkhla is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from east clockwise) Satun, Phatthalung, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Pattani and Yala. To the south it borders Kedah and Perlis of Malaysia. In contrast to most other provinces, the capital Songkhla is not the largest city in the province. The much newer city of Hat Yai, with a population of 359,813, is considerably larger, with twice the population of Songkhla (163,072). This often leads to the misconception that Hat Yai is the provincial capital.
Sukhothai, meaning the Dawn of Happiness, was a town founded in the 13th century on the fringe of the Khmer empire. The exact year is unknown, but according to the Fine Arts Office it was between 1238 and 1257. Founded by Phokhun Si Intharathit, it was the first truly independent Thai (Siamese) Kingdom after defeating the Khmers. Sukhothai enjoyed a golden age under their third king, King Ramkhamhaeng, who was credited with creating the Khmer-derived Thai alphabet which is essentially the same as that in use today. He also laid the foundation for politics, the monarchy and religion, as well as expanding its boundary of influence. Sukhothai was later ruled by many kings. The province is most famous for the historic city of Sukhothai, the capital of the Sukhothai kingdom. It is located about 12 km from the modern New Sukhothai city. Not far from Sukhothai are the Si Satchanalai historical park and the Kamphaeng Phet Historical Park. Both were cities within the former Sukhothai kingdom and of the same time period. The province was at first known as Sawankhalok; it was renamed to Sukhothai in 1939.
Suphan Buri might be the site of the legendary Suvarnabhumi, which is mentioned in very old Buddhist writings. However the first confirmed historical settlement was in the Dvaravati period, when the city was known as Mueang Thawarawadi Si Suphannaphumi. Its founding did take place 877-882. Later it was called U Thong, and was the home city of Prince U Thong, the founder of the Ayutthaya kingdom. King Khun Luang Pha Ngua finally gave it the current name. Suphan Buri was an important border city, and also the location of several battles with the neighboring Burmese.

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The area of Surat Thani was already inhabited in prehistoric times by Semang and Malayan tribes. Founded in the 3rd century, until the 13th century the Srivijaya kingdom dominated the Malay Peninsula. The city Chaiya contains several ruins from Srivijaya times, and was probably a regional capital of the kingdom. Some Thai historians even claim that it was the capital of the kingdom itself for some time, but this is generally disputed. Wiang Sa was another main settlement of that time. After the fall of the Srivijaya it was divided into the cities (Mueang) Chaiya, Thatong (now Kanchanadit) and Khirirat Nikhom. While Chaiya was administrated directly from the capital, Thatong and Khirirat were controlled by the Nakhon Si Thammarat kingdom. In 1899 they were merged into one province named Chaiya. In 1915 also the court of the Monthon Chumphon was moved to Bandon, which received its new name Surat Thani on July 29, 1915 during a visit of King Vajiravudh (Rama VI). The monthon was renamed to Surat accordingly. In 1926 it was abolished and incorporated into monthon Nakhon Si Thammarat. In 1933 the monthon was dissolved, so the province became the first level administrative subdivision. The provincial administration was at first located in a building in Tha Kham (Amphoe Phunphin). It was moved to the city of Surat Thani directly at the shore of the Tapi river in World War II, but when the Japanese invaded Thailand on December 8, 1941 and landed in Surat Thani as well, the building caught fire during the short battle and burned down. It was reopened in 1954. On March 19, 1982 it was destroyed again by a bomb planted by communist rebels, killing 5 people. A new building was built in the south of the city, the former site of the provincial hall is now the city pillar shrine (Lak Mueang).
In the north of Surin is the valley of the Mun river, a tributary of the Mekong. To the south of the province is the Dongrek mountain chain, which also forms the boundary to Cambodia. The central and northern parts of the province are undulating flood plains.
Tak was a historical kingdom built over 2,000 years ago, even before the Sukhothai period. The ancient kingdom had its peak around the 1st century. By the 5th century the capital of this kingdom was moved south to Lavo (present day Lopburi Province). A city named Ban Tak was established by Jamadevi, princess of the Lavo kingdom, around 663 AD. It became part of the Sukhothai kingdom through battles led by Ramkhamhaeng the Great and formed the main fortress on the western front. The city was moved further west and renamed Mueang Rahang when the Ayuthaya kingdom was lost to Burma during King Maha Thammaracha's reign. The city was moved back to the east side of the Ping River during the early Bangkok period.

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Trang used to be a port involved in foreign trade. It was the first city where rubber was planted. Phraya Ratsadanupradit Mahison Phakdi brought rubber from Malaysia and planted it here before anywhere else in southern Thailand in 1899. Rubber is now considered an important commodity of Thailand. The important Trang River flows through the province from its origin in the Khao Luang mountain range and the Palian River from the Banthat mountain range.
The Cardamom mountain range forms the boundary to Cambodia in the east of the province, where Trat has borders with three Cambodian provinces: Battambang, Pursat and Koh Kong. The third biggest island of Thailand is Ko Chang, belonging to the province. The island, together with more than 40 surrounding smaller islands, forms the Mu Ko Chang Marine National Park.
At Khong Chiam the Mun river, the biggest river of the Khorat Plateau, joins the Mekong, which forms the north-eastern boundary of Thailand with Laos. It is called Maenam Song Si or the Mun River alluvium because the brown water from Mekong River is mixed with blue water from Mun River. It is located about 84 km. from Ubon Ratchathani City centre. The area where the borders of the three countries Thailand, Laos and Cambodia meet is promoted as the Emerald Triangle, in contrast to the Golden Triangle in the north of Thailand. The Emerald refers to the large intact monsoon forests there.

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Udon Thani Province is located in the north of the Khorat Plateau, between the provinces of Khon Kaen to its south, and Nong Khai to its north. The city of Udon Thani, its capital, is served by the railway line that goes northeast from Saraburi through Nakhon Ratchasima (Khorat) and Khon Kaen to the border of Laos on the outskirts of Nong Khai city. Regular direct trains including night sleepers connect the city with Bangkok.
The province stretches from the upper plains of the Chao Phraya river valley, to mountains covered with forests in the west. The Sakae Krang River, a tributary of the Chao Phraya River is the main river of Uthai Thani province. The Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary at the western boundary to the province Tak and was declared World Heritage in 1991. It covers 2,574 km, and houses almost all of the forest animals of South-East Asia, including tigers and elephants.
Uttaradit is located in the valley of the Nan River. About 45 kilometers north of the city Uttaradit is the Queen Sirikit Dam, which created a 250 km artificial lake from the Nan. Most of the province was once covered with teak forests, then the major product of Uttaradit. The largest Teak tree in the world is found at the Ton Sak Yai Park. The 1500 year old tree measures 9.87 m in circumference and 37 m in height - originally it was 48.5 m high, but it was damaged in a storm. Three National Parks are located in the province - Klong Tron, Lam Nam Nan and Phu Soi Dao.
Historically Pattani Province was the centre of the semi-independent Malay Sultanate of Patani, but paying tribute to the Thai kingdoms of Sukhothai and Ayutthaya. After Ayutthaya fell in to the Burmese in 1767, the Sultanate of Patani gained full independence but under King Rama I (reigned 1782-1809) again came under Siam's control. In 1909, it was annexed by Siam as part of Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 negotiated with the British Empire. Along with Narathiwat, Yala was originally part of Pattani Province but they were split off and became provinces of their own. There is a separatist movement in Yala, which after being dormant for many years erupted again in 2004.
Yasothon is a town on the Chi River in the northeastern region of Thailand. It is the capital and administrative center of Yasothon Province and seat of its City District. Within this district, subdistrict Nai Mueang comprises the bounds of the town proper, which had a population of 21,134 in 2005. It lies a little more than 500 km northeast of Bangkok, the Thai capital.
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