Focuses on world climates and climatic change.
El Niño and La Niña are disruptions of the ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe.
La Niña is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific, compared to El Niño, which is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.
ENSO is the generic term for these phenomena.
An urban heat island is a city that is much warmer than its surroundings. It can affect local weather patterns, and maybe global patterns (such as global warming) as well.