The basal ganglia consists of masses of subcortical grey matter deep within the cerebral hemispheres. Along with the cerebellum, the basal ganglia controls movement and posture, adjusting the body to do certain things, as well as inhibits unwanted movement. Lesions in the basal ganglia cause disturbances in motor activity. Information is sent from the motor cortex to the basal ganglia and is relayed back via the thalamus. Recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contains five segregated circuits for different functions of behavior. Each involves separate regions within the basal ganglia and the thalamus.
Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare, inherited, neurological movement disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of the nervous system.
Meige Syndrome is a rare neurological movement disorder (dyskinesia) characterized by spasms of the muscles of the eyelids and associated loss of tone in these eyelid muscles.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is a potentially fatal reaction to any of a group of antipsychotic drugs or major tranquilizers (neuroleptics).