Synonyms: language operating systems (language-OSs), language-OS hybrids, language-OS combinations, language-integrated OSs, language-centric OSs, language-based OSs, language-dependent OSs. In computer science, after basic hardware, language comes first, before OSs, or applications. One needs a language first, even if only machine language, before one can write an OS or any other program. This category features languages that have the properties of OSs, and do OS tasks and services; and OSs intentionally built on a foundation of some specific language. This is usually done to increase system consistency, clarity, some type(s) of efficiency, programming productivity, and/or compactness. The key issue is language dependency. If an OS exists because of, is based and depends on, has a design informed by, one language, then it belongs here. If an OS is language independent, and would exist or continue regardless of its language, thought it may be coded in only one language (usually Assembly or C), then it belongs elsewhere. At the boundary, where so many arguments live, this is sometimes a difficult decision, and persons of goodwill can disagree. On this page, language-OSs are arranged in two groups and levels: 1) Top group: language-OSs for which there are more than one instance of a language-OS of this name/type, a language-OS family. 2) Bottom group: specific language-OSs, individual instances; there is only one language-OS of this name/type.
To this category, please submit only links on languages that have the properties of operating systems (OSs), and do OS tasks and services; and OSs intentionally built on a foundation of some specific language. If an OS exists because of, is based and depends on, has a design informed by, one language, then it belongs here. If an OS is language independent, and would exist or continue regardless of its language, thought it may be coded in only one language (usually Assembly or C), then it belongs elsewhere.
TUNES is a recursive acronym meaning: Tunes is a Useful, Nevertheless Expedient System. It may be the only operating system (OS), or open source project, with a 100% pure HTML virtual reflective logo. Truly astonishing. TUNES is starting by developing a new Low-Level Language (LLL) and High-Level Language (HLL), and then basing a language-integrated OS on these languages. Now, after at least six years, there is finally some actual TUNES code, mostly based on CLOS, Self, and Smalltalk. The main and great strength of the TUNES project is that it is a large, accurate, and fascinating, resource for learning about programming languages and OSs. This is embodied in several large TUNES subprojects that review programming languages and OSs, and a large body of very civilized debate on these and related topics. Also fascinating, and worth studying on their own merits, and as an open source phenomenon, are that several no-code, open source OS projects have allied themselves with the TUNES effort, forming an even larger and more useful body of information.