Two members of the cittern family have retained their importance - the Spanish Bandurria and the Portuguese Guitar (the latter particularly associated with Fado).
In the latter years of the 20th century, the word "cittern" came to be applied to a bewildering range of instruments of the mandolin family, and, in Celtic music, to the Irish bouzouki.
As the bouzouki came to be "acquired", its construction was modified to allow players to play standing up, and has a shorter neck and a flat back. A variety of tunings are used, the most popular being g–d'–a'–d''.
They are double strung - with varying numbers of strings.
At least some of the differences and traditions can be traced to the country's Atlantic and sea-faring connections.
This category is intended to include all Portuguese variants of the guitar family.