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Religion and Spirituality
Open Directory - Society: Religion and Spirituality: Christianity: Denominations: Catholicism: Reference: Catholic Encyclopedia: C
Caballero y Ocio, Juan
- Priest, remarkable for lavish gifts to the Church and for charity. (1644-1707)
Caballero, Fernán de
- Nom de plume of Cecilia Böhl von Faber, a noted Spanish novelist. (1796-1877)
Caballero, Raimundo Diosdado
- Writer. (1740-1830)
- Titular see of Egypt.
- French theologian and priest. (1604-1685)
Cabello de Balboa, Miguel
- Sixteenth century Spanish priest.
Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nuñez
- Born at Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain; dates of birth and death uncertain.
Cabot, John and Sebastian
- Navigators and explorers.
- Portuguese missionary in Japan. (1529-1609)
- Portuguese navigator. (b. 1460)
- Sixteenth century sailor.
- Bishop and antipope. (d.1072)
- In the earlier period they were commonly known to the Spaniards as Tejas, whence the name of the State, and to the French as Cenis or Assinais.
- The name, according to the Vulgate and the Septuagent, of three, or probably four cities mentioned in Scripture.
Cadillac, Antoine de Lamothe, Sieur de
- Founder of Detroit. (1657-1730)
Cadiz, Diocese of
- Suffragan of Seville.
- Article on the laborer for the double monastery of Whitby, composer of hymns and other Biblical poems in Anglo-Saxon, who died between 670 and 680.
Caen, University of
- Founded in 1432 by Henry VI of England, who was then master of Paris and of a large part of France.
- A book containing the rites and ceremonies to be observed at Mass, Vespers, and other functions, by bishops and prelates of inferior rank, in metropolitan, cathedral, and collegiate churches.
Caesar of Speyer
- Friar Minor and leader of the Cæsarines. (d. 1239)
- A Latin titular see, and the seat of a residential Armenian bishopric, in Cappadocia.
- Titular see in North Africa.
- Titular see in Palestine.
- A Greek Catholic residential see, and a Latin titular see, in Syria.
Caesarius of Arles, Saint
- Bishop, theologian, renowned as a popular preacher, wrote two monastic rules, died 543.
Caesarius of Heisterbach
- Cistercian monk. (1170-1240)
Caesarius of Nazianzus, Saint
- Physician, brother of St. Gregory of Nazianzus (the Theologian). Caesarius died in late 368 or early 369.
Caesarius of Prüm
- Twelfth-century Benedictine abbot and Cistercian monk.
- Titular see of Macedonia.
Cagli e Pergola, Diocese of
- Situated in Umbria (Italy), in the province of Pesaro, suffragan of Urbino.
Cagliari, Archdiocese of
- Cagliari, called by the ancient Caralis, is the principal city and capital of the Island of Sardinia, and an important port on the Gulf of Cagliari.
- French antiquarian. (1807-1882)
Cahill, Daniel William
- Lecturer and controversialist. (1796-1864)
Cahors, Diocese of
- Comprising the entire department of Lot, in France.
- Jewish High Priest.
Caiazzo, Diocese of
- Situated in the province of Caserta, Italy, amid the mountains of Tifati near the river Volturno.
- Priest and writer, born at Paris, 22 October, 1794, died there, 1850.
- First-born of Adam and Eve.
- A name used for (1) the descendants of Cain, (2) a sect of Gnostics and Antinomians.
- Third-century Christian author.
Caius and Soter, Saints
- Popes, having their feast together on 22 April.
- Physician and scholar. (1510-1573)
- Benedictine savant. (1560-1650)
- Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines.
Cajetan, Tommaso de Vio Gaetani
- Domincan cardinal, philosopher, theologian, and exegete. (1469-1534)
Calabozo, Diocese of
- A town in the State of Miranda, Venezuela, on the River Guárico, 120 miles south-southwest of Caracas.
Calahorra and La Calzada, Diocese of
- Suffragan of Burgos, comprising almost all the province of Logroño and part of the provinces of Navarre and Soria. Calahorra.
- Titular see in Africa.
Calancha, Fray Antonio de la
- Augustinian monk. (1584-1654)
Calas Case, The
- Jean Calas was a French Calvinist, born 19 March, 1698, at La Caparède near Castres, in the department of Tarn; executed 10 March, 1762, at Toulouse.
Calasio, Mario di
- Friar Minor and lexicographer. (1550-1620)
Calatayud, Pedro de
- Jesuit missionary. (1689-1773)
Calatrava, Military Order of
- Founded in Castile, in the twelfth century, as a military branch of the great Cistercian family.
Calcutta, Archdiocese of
- Extends along the sea-coast from the Khabadak to the Mahanundi River.
Caldani, Leopoldo Marco Antonio
- Italian anatomist and physiologist. (1725-1813)
Caldara, Polidoro (da Caravaggio)
- Italian painter. (1492-1543)
- Brazilian poet. (1740-1800)
Calderon de la Barca, Pedro
- Spanish dramatist. (1600-1681)
- Six people with this name are described.
- Includes history and Saint's days.
- Details include days, weeks, months, years, and eras.
Calendar, Reform of the
- Such alterations were too obvious to be ignored, and throughout the Middle Ages many observers both pointed them out and endeavoured to devise a remedy.
- Italian lexicographer. (1440-1510)
Cali, Diocese of
- Located in Colombia.
- Eminent painter of the Venetian school. (1528-1588)
- Includes history, population, education, resources, and religion.
- Divided into Lower or Old California and Upper California.
California, Vicariate Apostolic of Lower
- Located in Mexico.
- Titular see of Asia Minor.
- Titular see of Thrace.
Callistus I, Pope Saint
- Martyr, d. about 223. Also known as Callixtus or Calixtus.
Callistus II, Pope
- Date of birth unknown; died 13 December, 1124.
Callistus III, Pope
- Born near Valencia in Spain, 31 December, 1378; died at Rome, 6 August, 1458.
Callières, Louis-Hector de
- Thirteenth Governor of New France. (1646-1705)
- French etcher, engraver, and painter. (1592-1635)
- Philosopher and theologian, b. at Mesnil-Hubert, department of Orne, France, date of birth uncertain; d. 31 December, 1709.
Calmet, Dom Augustin
- Celebrated exegetist. (1672-1757)
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- A city in the province of Catania, Sicily, built on two eminences about 2000 feet above sea-level, connected by a bridge.
- The city is situated in a fertile plain of Sicily, on the River Salso, in the vicinity of the most extensive sulphur mines in the world.
- Etymologically any form of ruse or fraud employed to deceive another, particularly in judicial proceedings.
- Painter. (1540-1619)
Calvary, Congregation of Our Lady of
- A congregation founded at Poitiers, in 1617, by Antoinette of Orléans-Longueville.
- The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
- Second Lord Baltimore. (1606-1675)
- Third Baron of Baltimore, and Second Proprietary Governor of Maryland. (1629-1715)
- First Lord Baltimore, statesman and colonizer. (1580-1632)
- Governor of Maryland. (1607-1647)
- Proprietary Governor of Maryland in 1660-1661.
Calvi and Teano, Diocese of
- The ancient Cales or Calenum in the Campagna, not far from Capua.
- Born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564.
- Calvin succeeded Luther in point of time and was committed to a struggle with Zwingli's disciples at Zurich and elsewhere, known as Sacramentarians.
Calvinus, Justus Baronius
- Convert and apologist. (1570-1606)
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- A titular see in Armenia.
- A joint order of hermits and cenobites, founded by St. Romuald at the beginning of the eleventh century.
Camara y Castro, Tomás
- Spanish bishop. (1847-1904)
Camargo, Diego Muñoz
- Born of a Spanish father and Indian mother soon after 1521; died at a very advanced age, the exact date unknown.
- Genoese painter, b. at Moneglia near Genoa, in 1527; d. in the Escorial, Madrid, 1585.
Cambrai, Archdiocese of
- Comprises the entire Département du Nord of France.
Cambridge, University of
- Includes information on history, studies, and buildings.
- Titular see of Asia Minor.
Camel, George Joseph
- Botanist, born at Brunn, in Moravia, 21 April 1661, died in Manila, 2 May, 1706.
Camerino, Diocese of
- Situated in the Italian province of Macerata in the Apennines, about 40 miles from Ancona.
- The title of certain papal officials.
Camillus de Lellis, Saint
- Biographical article on founder of a religious order devoted to care of the sick and dying.
- Eighteenth-century French sect.
- Sculptor born in Verona, 1552; died about 1623 or 1625.
- Painter of the Venetian school, b. at Padua in 1482; date of death unascertained.
- French educator, born 6 November, 1752, at Paris; died in 1822, at Mantes.
- In-depth article on the strange career of the Italian anti-Aristotelian Dominican writer.
- Italian optician and astronomer who lived in Rome during the latter half of the seventeenth century.
- Flemish painter, known in France as Pierre de Champagne, and in Brussels as Pieter de Kempeneer (his actual name), or, as translated in Flemish, Van de Velde, b. at Brussels in 1503; d. there in 1580.
- American public official. (1812-1893)
- Diocese in the State of Campeche, Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Yucatan.
- Cardinal, an eminent canonist, ecclesiastical diplomat, and reformer.
- Italian painter of the Lombard School, b. at Cremona, 1522; d. at Reggio, about 1590.
- Italian painter, b. at Cremona, 1475; d. 1536.
- Italian painter and architect, b. at Cremona about 1500; died there, 1572.
Campo Santo de' Tedeschi
- A cemetery, church, and hospice for Germans on the south side of St. Peter's, Rome.
Camus de Pont-Carré, Jean-Pierre
- French bishop, b. 3 November, 1584, at Paris; d. there 25 April, 1652.
Camões, Luis Vaz de
- Epic poet, born in 1524 or 1525; died 10 June, 1580.
- A city of Galilee, Palestine.
- The Hebrew word Kenaan, denoting a person.
- Comprises all that part of North America north of the United States, with the exception of Newfoundland, and Labrador.
Canada, Catholicity in
- Treated under three headings: I. Period of French domination, from the discovery of Canada to the Treaty of Paris, in 1763; II. Period of British rule, from 1763 to the present day; III. Present conditions.
Canal, José de la
- Ecclesiastical historian.
Canary Islands, The
- An archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean facing the western coast of Africa.
- A titular see of Arabia.
Cancer de Barbastro, Luis
- Dominican missionary to the New World. (d. 1549)
- Ethiopian queen.
- The residence of the Greek Metropolitan of Crete, who has seven suffragan sees, Khania, Kisamos, Rethymnon (Retimo), Sitia, Lampa, Arkadia, and Chersonesos.
- The name of two scholars of the Carlovingian revival of letters in the ninth century.
- Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin, Feast of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple.
- The word candle (candela, from candeo, to burn) was introduced into the English language as an ecclesiastical term, probably as early as the eighth century.
- Provides the history of their use in Christian churches.
- Formerly a titular see of Crete, suppressed by a decree of 1894.
Canelos and Macas
- Vicariate Apostolic in Ecuador, South America.
- Friar Minor and controversialist, born on the borders of Nottingham and Leicestershire, date uncertain; died in London, June, 1672
- Irish priest, monastic founder, missionary to Scotland, d. 600.
- Canonist and historian, born at Nymwegen in Geldern.
- Born at Nimwegen, Holland, 1532; died 27 September, 1606, at Ingolstadt.
- Spanish painter, architect, and sculptor. (1601-1667)
- Article by John R. Volz on the character, teachings, and life of this Dominican bishop and theologian.
- Ecclesiastical person.
- Musical term, the strictest of all contrapuntal forms.
Canon of the Mass
- Article divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of the Canon; (III) The text and rubrics of the Canon; (IV) Mystical interpretations.
Canon of the New Testament
- The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history.
Canon of the Old Testament
- Signifies the authoritative list or closed number of the writings composed under Divine inspiration, and destined for the well-being of the Church.
- The assistance of women in the work of the Church goes back to the earliest time, and their uniting together for community exercises was a natural development of religious worship.
Canons and Canonesses Regular
- According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is essentially a religious cleric.
Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception
- A congregation founded in the department of Isère, at Saint-Antoine, France, by the Abbé Dom Adrien Gréa.
- A collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with the Apostolic Constitutions.
Canons, Collections of Ancient
- Includes authority and methods.
- Certain rules or norms of conduct or belief prescribed by the Church.
- A titular see of Egypt.
- An ornamental covering of cloth, stone, wood, or metal, used to crown an altar, throne, pulpit, or statue.
- A former castle of Matilda, Countess of Tuscany, in the foothills of the Apennines.
- Italian sculptor. (1757-1822)
- A name given to the fourth Sunday after Easter.
- The Ancient Diocese of Canterbury was the Mother-Church and Primatial See of All England, from 597 till the death of the last Catholic Archbishop, Cardinal Pole, in 1558.
- Used in the English Catholic translation of the Bible as the equivalent of the Vulgate canticum in most, but not all, of the uses of that word; for where canticum is used for a sacred song.
Canticle of Canticles
- One of three books of Solomon, contained in the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Christian Canon of the Scriptures.
- The chief singer (and sometimes instructor) of the ecclesiastical choir, called also precentor.
- Italian historian and poet, b. at Brivio, 8 December, 1807; d. at Milan, 11 March, 1895.
- King of the English, Danes, and Norwegians, b. about 994; d. at Shaftesbury, 12 November 1035.
Canute IV, Saint
- King of Denmark, martyr, d. 1086.
- Erected by Pius IX, 3 October, 1861, in the ecclesiastical Province of Port au Prince.
Capaccio and Vallo
- Suffragan diocese of Salerno.
- Archbishop of Capua. (1824-1912)
- Historian, b. at Marseilles, 1802; d. at Paris, 22 December, 1872.
- Friar Minor, date of birth unknown; d. at Velletri in 1480.
- Augustinian friar, historian, and theologian, b. at Lynn in Norfolk, 21 April, 1393.
- A titular see of Palestine.
- A titular see of Palestine, suffragan to Scythopolis in Palestina Secunda.
Capitulations, Episcopal and Pontifical
- Agreements, by which those taking part in the election of a bishop or pope imposed special conditions upon the candidate to be fulfilled by him after his election.
- Italian composer. (1811-1898)
Capponi, Gino, Count
- Historian and litterateur; born at Florence, Italy, 13 September, 1792; died 3 February, 1876.
- Cardinal, theologian, canonist, and statesman, b. at Capranica near Palestrina, Italy, in 1400; d. at Rome, 14 July, 1458.
Caprara, Giovanni Battista
- Statesman and cardinal, born at Bologna, 29 May, 1733; died at Paris, 27 July, 1810.
- A theologian, born towards the end of the fourteenth century, (about 1380), in the diocese of Rodez, France; died in that city 6 April, 1444.
- Titular see of North Africa.
Captain (in the Bible)
- In the Douay version captain represents several different Hebrew and Latin words, and designates both civil and military officers.
Captivities of the Israelites
- Includes the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman captivities.
- Situated in the province of Caserta, Southern Italy.
Capuchin Friars Minor
- An autonomous branch of the first Franciscan Order.
- A branch of the Poor Clares of the Primitive Observance, instituted at Naples, in 1538, by the Venerable Maria Longo.
- From caputium, hood - So named from the headgear which was one of their distinctive marks.
- Apostolic prefecture situated in South America on the southern border of the Republic of Colombia.
Carabantes, José de
- Friar Minor Capuchin and theologian, born in Aragon, in 1628; died in 1694.
- Roman Emperor, son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, b. 188; d. 217.
- Located in the Republic of Venezuela, a metropolitan see with the Barquisimeto, Calabozo, Guayana, Merida, and Zulia as suffragans.
- Seventh General of the Society of Jesus. (1585-1649)
- A Jewish sect professing to follow the text of the Bible (Miqra) to the exclusion of Rabbinical traditions, and hence opposed to the Talmud.
Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Juan
- Spanish ecclesiastic and writer. (1606-1682)
- French author and bibliographer. (1813-1874)
Carbery, James Joseph
- Third Bishop of Hamilton, Ontario. (1823-1887)
- The name of a secret political society, which played an important part, chiefly in France and Italy, during the first decades of the nineteenth century.
- Professor of mathematics and science. (1829-1889)
- Diocese comprising the entire department of Aude, and suffragan to Toulouse.
- Italian physician and mathematician. (1501-1576)
- Moral theologian and author. (1613-1684)
- A titular see of Thessaly.
- A dignitary of the Roman Church and counsellor of the pope.
- Since the thirteenth century it has been customary at Rome to confide to some particular cardinal a special solicitude in the Roman Curia for the interests of a given religious order or institute, confraternity, church, college, city, or nation.
- The vicar-general of the pope, as Bishop of Rome, for the spiritual administration of the city, and its surrounding district, properly known as Vicarius Urbis.
- The four principal virtues upon which the rest of the moral virtues turn or are hinged.
Cardinals (1913 List)
- Members of the College of Cardinals, 1913.
Carducci, Bartolommeo and Vincenzo
- Florentine painters, brothers, usually grouped under the Spanish School.
- Name of a town in the Tribe of Juda.
- Author and publisher, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 28 January, 1760; d. in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 15 September, 1839.
Carheil, Etienne de
- French missionary among the Indians of Canada, born at Carentoir, France, November 1633; died at Quebec, 27 July, 1726.
- Suffragan of Santa Severina.
- Next to the Arawaks, probably the most numerous Indian stock, of more or less nomadic habits, in South America.
- Detailing his work in and composition for the Roman Catholic Church.
Carli, Dionigi da Piacenza
- Seventeenth century Capuchin missionary.
- The Catholic was smaller in extent than the present Anglican diocese, which was enlarged in 1856.
- Established under the Merovingian Kings, a school, scola palatina, the chroniclers of the eighth century styled it for the training of the young Frankish nobles in the art of war and in the ceremonies of the court.
- Designates in the Old Testament a certain city and its adjacent territory in the tribe of Juda.
- A well-known mountain ridge in Palestine, usually called in the Hebrew Bible Hakkarmel.
Carmelite Order, The
- One of the mendicant orders.
- Missionary bishop. (d. 1583)
- Belgian biologist. (1836-1899)
- Jesuit missionary to Mexico. (1586-1666)
- A work in four books (120 or 121 chapters), purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne, and written about 790-92.
- A group of about 500 small coral islands, east of the Philippines, in the Pacific Ocean.
- Franciscan friar and author, b. at Athlone, Ireland, in 1605; d. at Dublin, 1666.
- French Canadian statesman and magistrate. (1800-1876)
- Venetian painter whose real name was Scarpazza, b. at Venice about 1455; d. in the same city between 1523 and 1526.
- A titular see of Cyprus. Carpasia, Karpasia, also Karpasion is said to have been founded by King Pygmalion near Cape Sarpedon.
- Situated in the province of Modena, Central Italy.
- Italian painter, engraver, and etcher, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1557; d. at Parma, 22 March, 1602.
- Archbishop of Toledo; b. at Miranda de Arga, Spain, 1503; d. at Rome, 2 May, 1576.
- Missionary among the Chontal Indians.
Carreno de Miranda, Juan
- Spanish painter, b. at Avilés in Asturia, 1614; d. at Madrid, 1685.
- In 1847 Carrera was, by a kind of election, made President of Guatemala, and seven years later he became dictator, that is, president for life with the right to designate his successor.
- A titular see of Mesopotamia.
- Moral theologian, thirteenth superior of the seminary and Society of Saint-Sulpice. (1795-1864)
Carrières, Louis de
- Born in the chateau de la Plesse in Avrille, Angers, France, 1 September, 1662; d. at Paris, 11 June 1717.
Carroll of Carrollton, Charles
- American statesman. (1737-1832)
- Brother of Archbishop Carroll, b. at upper Marlboro, Maryland, U. S. A., 1733; d. at Washington, 1829.
- First American bishop. (1735-1815)
- The city of the same name, residence of the archbishop, is situated on an island to the north of Tierra Bomba, Colombia.
- Suffragan of Granada in Spain since the concordat of 1851, previously of Toledo.
- Founded by Phoenician colonists, and long the great opponent of Rome in the duel for supremacy, was destroyed by a Roman army, 146 B.C. A little more than a century later (44 B.C.), a new city composed of Roman colonists was founded on the site.
- Also known as Mochuda. Irish monk, priest, hermit, founder. He composed a monastic rule in Irish verse. Died in 637.
Carthusian Order, The
- The name is derived from the French chartreuse through the Latin cartusia, of which the English "charterhouse" is a corruption.
- French Canadian statesman, son of Jacques Cartier and Marguerite Paradis, b. at St. Antoine, on the Richelieu, 16 Sept., 1814; d. in London 20 May, 1873.
- The discoverer of Canada, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, in 1491; d. 1 September, 1557.
Carvajal, Bernardino Lopez de
- Cardinal, b. 1455, at Plasencia in Estremadura, Spain; d. at Rome 16 Dec., 1523.
Carvajal, Gaspar de
- Dominican missionary, b. in Estremadura, Spain, c. 1500; d. at Lima, Peru, 1584.
- Cardinal; b. about 1400 at Truxillo in Estremadura, Spain; d. at Rome, 6 December, 1469.
Carvajal, Luis de
- Friar Minor and Tridentine theologian, b. about 1500; the time of his death is uncertain.
Carvajal, Luisa de
- Born 2 Jan., 1568, at Jaraizejo, Spain; died 2 Jan., 1614, at London, a lady of high birth, who received from God what appears to have been a special vocation to go to England and minister to those who were suffering for the Faith.
- Historian, b. in Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1590; d. probably in 1672.
- Poet, dramatist, and diplomatist, b. at West Harting, England, 1625; d. 1711.
- A titular see of Greece.
- A suffragan of Vercelli. Casale Monferrato.
Casali, Giovanni Battista
- Musician, b. at Rome in 1715; d. there 1792. From 1759 until his death he held the position of choir-master in the church of St. John Lateran.
- Vicariate Apostolic in the Republic of Colombia, South America, administered by the Augustinians, subject to the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.
- Cardinal, b. at Naples, 13 July, 1620; d. at Rome, 3 March, 1700.
Casas, Bartolomé de las
- Born at Seville, probably in 1474; d. at Madrid, 1566.
- The capital of the province of that name in Southern Italy.
- Mathematician, b. at Kilkenny, Ireland, 12 May, 1820; d. at Dublin, 3 Jan, 1891.
Casgrain, Henri Raymond
- Author of French Canadian literature. (1831-1904)
- A town in the County Tipperary, Ireland, which is also a Catholic archbishopric and the see of a Protestant bishop.
- Prince of Poland, remained unmarried by choice, d. in 1484 at the age of 25.
- A titular see of Lower Egypt.
- The last surviving Jesuit of the old Canada mission, born in Liège, Belgium, 4 October, 1728; died at Quebec, 16 March, 1800.
- Flemish Humanist and theologian. (1513-1566)
- Spanish Jesuit. (1673-1686)
Cassano all' Ionio
- Suffragan of Reggio.
Casserly, Patrick S.
- Educator, b. in Ireland; d. in New York, where for many years he conducted a classical school.
Cassian, John, Saint
- Article on the monk and ascetic writer, who attempted to convey the teaching and way of life of the desert fathers and mothers to the fledgling monastic movement in Gaul.
- Journalist, essayist, critic, b. at Albany, New York, U.S.A., 12 Aug., 1815; d. there 23 Jan., 1873.
Cassini, Giovanni Domenico
- Italian astronomer. (1625-1712)
- Roman writer, statesman, and monk, b. about 490; d. about 583.
Casson, François Dollier de
- Fourth superior of Saint-Sulpice, Montreal, Canada, b. near Nantes, France, 1636; d. in 1701.
- Diocese in Hungary, founded in 1804 by the division of the Diocese of Agria, in the archdiocese of the same name, and the Dioceses of Cassovia and Szatmar.
- A titular see of Asia Minor, Latin title suppressed, 1894.
- Florentine painter, b. near Florence, 1390; d. at Florence, 9 August, 1457.
Castellammare di Stabia
- The seat of the diocese is an industrial city, situated on the Bay of Naples, on a slope of Monte Gauro, and famous for its health-giving mineral springs.
- Suffragan of Taranto.
Castellanos, Juan de
- Soldier, priest, and epic poet, born in Spain in the first half of the sixteenth century; date of death unknown.
- Mathematician and physicist; b. at Perugia, Italy, 1577; d. at Rome, 1644.
- Italian physician and botanist, b. at Rome in 1574; d. at Messina in 1662.
Castello, Giovanni Battista
- Italian painter, sculptor, and architect; b. at Gandino, in the Valle Seriana, in the territory of Bergamo, in 1509 (some writers state 1500 or 1506); d. at Madrid in 1579.
- Italian prose-writer, b. at Casatico, near Mantua, 6 December, 1478; died at Toledo, Spain, 7 February, 1529.
Castiglione, Carlo Ottavio
- Philologist and numismatist, b. of an ancient family at Milan, Italy, 1784; d. at Genoa, 10 April, 1849.
Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto
- Painter and etcher, b. at Genoa, Italy, 1616; d. at Mantua, 1670.
Castile and Aragon
- The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon.
Castillejo, Cristóbal de
- Spanish poet, b. in Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca), 1491; d. in Vienna, 12 June, 1556.
- Jesuit missionary to China. (1655-1709)
- A titular see of Macedonia.
Castracane degli Antelminelli, Francesco
- Naturalist, b. at Fano, Italy, 19 July, 1817; d. at Rome 27 March, 1899.
Castro Palao, Fernando
- Spanish theologian. (1581-1633)
Castro y Bellvis, Guillen de
- Spanish dramatic poet, b. of a noble family at Valencia in 1569; d. at Madrid in 1631.
Castro, Alphonsus de
- Friar Minor and theologian, b. in 1495 at Zamora, Leon, Spain; d. 11 February 1558, at Brussels.
- The application of general principles of morality to definite and concrete cases of human activity, for the purpose, primarily, of determining what one ought to do, or ought not to do, or what one may do or leave undone as one pleases; and for the purpose, secondarily, of deciding whether and to what extent guilt or immunity from guilt follows on an action already posited.
- Oratorian and poet, b. 15 July 1814, at Yately, Hampshire, of which place his father, the Rev. R. C. Caswall, was vicar; d. at the Oratory, Birmingham, 2 January, 1878.
- The subject is covered under the headings: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. Paintings; V. Sarcophagi; VI. Small Objects Found in the Catacombs; and VII. Catacombs outside Rome.
- Derived from the Italian word catafalco, literally means a scaffold or elevation, but in its strictly liturgical sense the word is employed to designate the cenotaph-like erection which is used at the exequial offices of the Church, and takes the place of the bier whenever the remains are not present.
- A Roman liturgist of the eighteenth century, member of the Oratory of San Girolamo della Carita (Hieronymite), famous for his correct editions of the chief liturgical books of the Roman Church, which are still in habitual use, and which he enriched with scholarly commentaries illustrative of the history, rubrics, and canon law of the Roman Liturgy.
- A principality within the Spanish Monarchy.
- A seaport and capital of the province of the same name in Sicily, situated on the eastern side of Mount Etna.
- Suffragan of Reggio.
- In the early Church, was the name applied to one who had not yet been initiated into the sacred mysteries, but was undergoing a course of preparation for that purpose.
- A term which originated in Immanuel Kant's ethics.
- The term was transferred by Aristotle from its forensic meaning (procedure in legal accusation) to its logical use as attribution of a subject.
- Collections of excerpts from the writings of Biblical commentators, especially the Fathers and early ecclesiastical writers, strung together like the links of a chain, and in this way exhibiting a continuous and connected interpretation of a given text of Scripture.
- From the Greek katharos, pure, literally "puritans", a name specifically applied to, or used by, several sects at various periods.
- Three uses of the word are detailed.
- The chief church of a diocese.
- A certain sum of money to be contributed annually for the support of the bishop, as a mark of honour and in sign of subjection to the cathedral church, hence its name.
Catherick, Venerable Edmund
- Priest and martyr, born probably in Lancashire about 1605; executed at York, 13 April, 1642.
Catherine de' Medici
- Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589; she was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d' Auvergne who, by her mother, Catherine of Bourbon, was related to the royal house of France.
Catherine de' Ricci, Saint
- Biography of the cloistered Third Order Dominican nun, mystic, who died in 1590.
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint
- Article on the virgin and martyr. In the Middle Ages, one of the most popular saints.
Catherine of Bologna, Saint
- Short biography of this Poor Clare, mystic, and writer, who died in 1463.
Catherine of Genoa, Saint
- Biography of the mystic and author, who died in 1510.
Catherine of Siena, Saint
- Third Order Dominican, hermit, reformer, mystic, d. 1380. Biographical article by Edmund G. Gardner.
Catherine of Sweden, Saint
- Daughter of St. Bridget of Sweden. Widow, pilgrim, superior of the Brigittine motherhouse, d. 1381. Biographical article.
Catherine, Monastery of Saint
- Situated on Mount Sinai, in a gorge below the Jebel-Musa, the reputed Mountain of the Law.
- The combination "the Catholic Church" (he katholike ekklesia) is found for the first time in the letter of St. Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, written about the year 110.
Catholic Benevolent Legion
- A fraternal assessment life-insurance society organized in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A., 5 September, 1881.
Catholic Club of New York
- A social organization described by its constitution as a club which "shall consist of Catholic gentlemen who are governed by a spirit of devotion to the Church and fidelity to the Holy Father".
- The name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter.
Catholic Knights of America
- A fraternal life-insurance company chartered under the laws of the State of Kentucky, U.S.A. It was founded in Nashville, Tennessee by James J. McLoughlin, D.N. Burke, John Broderick, and John MeDonald.
Catholic Missionary Union
- The corporate name of a society whose directors are chosen from among the bishops of the United States, the seminaries, the parishes and the missionary organizations of that country, its purpose being to engage priests and lay-men as missionaries to non-Catholics in the United States, to provide for their maintenance, to distribute Catholic literature, and in every way to assist the bishops in establishing and carrying on home missions in their various jurisdictions.
Catholic University of America
- A pontifical institution located in Washington, D.C. It comprises the Schools of the Sacred Sciences, Philosophy, Law, Letters, and Science, each of which includes several departments.
Catholic University of Ireland
- The project was launched at the Synod of Thurles in 1850.
- The ecclesiastical title of the Nestorian and Armenian patriarchs.
- French historian, b. at Paris, 28 December, 1659; d. there 12 October, 1737.
- Suffragan of Zara.
- French mathematician, b. at Paris, 21 August, 1789; d. at Sceaux, 23 May, 1857.
- Also known as Sault St. Louis. An Iroquois reservation, situated on the south bank of the St. Lawrence, about ten miles above Montreal.
- A French bishop and Jansenist, b. at Toulouse, 1610; d. at Pamiers, 1680.
- A titular see of Asia Minor. Kaunos was said to have been founded by Kaunos, son of Miletos and Kyane, on the southern coast of Caria, opposite Rhodes, and was known as Rhodian Peraea, at the foot of Mount Tarbelos.
- Cause, as the correlative of effect, is understood as being that which in any way gives existence to, or contributes towards the existence of, any thing; which produces a result; to which the origin of any thing is to be ascribed.
- French Jesuit preacher and moralist. (1583-1651)
- Canonist, b. in Bordogna, Diocese of Bergamo, Italy, 13 January, 1841; d. at Rome, 29 December, 1906.
- Italian mathematician, b. at Milan in 1598; d. at Bologna, 3 December, 1647.
- Soldier, b. in County Tipperary, Ireland, 1831; d. in New York, 7 January, 1901.
Cavazzi, Giovanni Antonio
- Of Montecucolo, a Capuchin friar of the province of Bologna, date of birth uncertain; died at Genoa, 1692.
- Italian ecclesiastic, archæologist, and numismatist; b. 18 May, 1795, at Levizzano-Rangone, near Modena; d. 26 November, 1865, at Modena.
- A writer frequently quoted on Spanish-Mexican history; b. at Guadalajara in Mexico, 21 January, 1729, he entered the Society of Jesus, 14 January, 1758, and went to Italy with the other members of the order after their expulsion from Mexico in 1767.
- Born in the Weald of Kent, c. 1422; died at Westminster, 1491; the first English printer and the introducer of the art of printing into England.
- Diocese in the republic of Haiti, suffragan to Port-au-Prince.
Caylus, Comte de
- French archaeologist, b. at Paris, in 1692; d. in 1765.
- French-Canadian priest. (1807-1881)
- Commonly known as St. Chad. Seventh-century bishop of Lichfield.
- Located in the Philippine Islands. Cebú, the diocesan city, spelled also Sebú and Zebú, in the province of the same name.
- Virgin and martyr; patroness of church music.
- A coniferous tree frequently mentioned in the Bible.
- The name of the second son of Ismael (Gen., xxv, 13; I Par., i, 29); also of an Arabian tribe descended from him, and of the territory occupied by it.
- Brother of St. Chad (Ceadda) and bishop of the East Saxons, d. 664.
- A Levitical city and place of refuge in Nephtali and a Levitical city of Issachar assigned to the family of Gersom.
Cedron, Brook of
- The name designates in Holy Writ the ravine on the east of Jerusalem, between the Holy City and the Mount of Olives.
- The city of the same name in the province of Palermo, in Sicily (Italy), is situated nearly in the centre of the northern coast of the island.
- Patrologist, b. at Bar-le-Duc, 14 May, 1688; d. at Flavigny, 26 May, 1763.
- A letter which a bishop gives to a priest, that he may obtain permission in another diocese to say Mass, and for this purpose bears testimony that he is free from canonical censures.
- A port and fortress in Isauria, founded by the Phoenicians or, according to legend, by Sandacos, son of Astynoös and grandson of Phaethon.
Celestine I, Pope Saint
- Excommunicated Nestorius, sent St. Patrick to Ireland, d. 432.
Celestine II, Pope
- Reigned 1143-1144.
Celestine IV, Pope
- Reigned October-November 1241.
- Also called the Hermits of St. Damian or Hermits of Murrone.
Celestine V, Pope Saint
- Benedictine priest and hermit, d. 1296.
- The name given to certain extreme "Spiritual" Franciscans of the Marches, because they were taken by Celestine V under his special protection.
Celibacy of the Clergy
- The renunciation of marriage implicitly or explicitly made, for the more perfect observance of chastity, by all those who receive the Sacrament of Orders in any of the higher grades.
- One of the names by which the small memorial chapels sometimes erected in the Christian cemeteries of the first age were known.
- A noted London midwife, who came into prominence through the pretended "Meal-Tub Plot" of 1680.
Celsus the Platonist
- An eclectic Platonist and polemical writer against Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the second century.
- German Humanist, b. at Wipfeld in Lower Franconia, 1 February, 1459; d. at Vienna, 4 February, 1508.
Celtic Rite, The
- The term "Celtic Rite" is generally, but rather indefinitely, applied to the various rites in use in Great Britain, Ireland, perhaps in Brittany, and sporadically in Northern Spain, and in the monasteries which resulted from the Irish missions of St. Columbanus in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, at a time when rites other than the then existing rite of Rome were used, wholly or partially, in those places.
- The word coemeterium or cimiterium (in Gr. koimeterion) may be said in early literature to be used exclusively of the burial places of Jews and Christians.
Cemeteries in Law
- Includes information concerning the laws in the United States and Canada.
Cemeteries, Early Roman Christian
- This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome.
Cenacle, Religious of the
- The Society of Our Lady of the Cenacle was founded in 1826, at La Louvesc in France, near the tomb of St. John Francis Regis.
- Bishop, historian, and controversialist, b. in Paris, 1483; d. there, 1560.
- Situated in the province of Treviso, in former Venetian territory, on a declivity of the Rhaetian Alps.
- A vessel suspended by chains, and used for burning incense at solemn Mass, Vespers, Benediction, processions, and other important offices of the Church.
Censorship of Books
- Either ecclesiastical or civil, according as it is practiced by the spiritual or secular authority, and it may be exercised in two ways, viz.: before the printing or publishing of a work, by examining it (censura prævia); and after the printing or publishing, by repressing or prohibiting it (censura repressiva).
- Medicinal and spiritual punishments imposed by the Church on a baptized, delinquent, and contumacious person, by which he is deprived, either wholly of in part, of the use of certain spiritual goods, until he recover from his contumacy.
- Doctrinal judgments by which the Church stigmatizes certain teachings detrimental to faith or morals.
- A canonical term variously defined by different writers.
Central Verein of North America, German Roman Catholic
- The origin dates back to 1854, in which year the presidents of three German Catholic benevolent societies of Buffalo, new York, issued a call to various German Catholic societies for the purpose for forming a central body.
Centre (Party), The
- This name is given to a political party in the German Reichstag and to a number of parties in the diets of the various states of the German Empire.
Centuriators of Magdeburg
- A group of Lutheran scholars who had gathered at Magdeburg, and who are now known to history as the "Centuriators of Magdeburg" because of the way in which they divided their work (century by century) and the place in which the first five volumes were written.
- A Roman officer commanding a century or company, the strength of which varied from fifty to one hundred men.
- Anglo-Saxon Benedictine, abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow, d. 716.
- King of Northumbria and monk of Lindisfarne, date and place of birth not known; died at Lindisfarne, 764.
- A very active missionary among the Indians, born in the province of La Mancha, 1532; died at Guatemala, 1602.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus in Asia Minor.
- The book which contains in detail the order of religious ceremony and solemn worship prescribed to be observed in ecclesiastical functions.
- In liturgy, an external action, gesture, or movement which accompanies the prayers and public exercise of divine worship.
- A Gnostic-Ebionite heretic, contemporary with St. John; against whose errors on the divinity of Christ the Apostle is said to have written the Fourth Gospel.
- The word indicates both a state of mind and a quality of a proposition, according as we say, "I am certain", or, "It is certain".
Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de
- Spanish author. (1547-1616)
Cervantes, Salazar Francisco
- One of the first professors of the University of Mexico, born at Toledo, Spain, probably in 1513 or 1514; went to Mexico in 1550; died there in 1575.
- Suffragan of Ravenna.
- Article by Joseph Rompel dwells upon Cesalpino's botanical accomplishments as well as his philosophical positions.
- Born at Rome, 1398; died at Varna, in Bulgaria 10 November, 1444.
- The ancient Cæsena is a city of Emilia, in the province of Forli (Italy), in the former States of the Church.
- Polish Dominican, d. about 1242.
- Titular see of Asia Minor.
- Mathematician. (1648-1737)
Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
- An island to the south-east of India and separated from it only by a chain of reefs and sand-banks called Adam's Bridge.
- Diocese in Peru.
- Irish bishop. (1813-1882)
- French Jesuit. (1791-1883)
Chair of Peter
- From the earliest times the Church at Rome celebrated on 18 January the memory of the day when the Apostle held his first service with the faithful of the Eternal City.
- A titular see of Asia Minor. The city was founded 676 B. C. by the Megarians on the Bithynian coast, opposite the place where a little later Byzantium rose.
Chalcedon, Council of
- The Fourth Ecumenical Council, held in 451, from 8 October until 1 November inclusive, at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor.
- The name of former Nestorians now reunited with the Roman Church.
- Occupies the first place among sacred vessels, and by a figure of speech the material cup is often used as if it were synonymous with the Precious Blood itself.
- Bishop of Debra, Vicar Apostolic of the London District, author of spiritual and controversial works, b. 29 Sept., 1691; d. 12 Jan., 1781.
- Son of Noe and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ethnographical table is given by Genesis 10.
- In 1467, in the ducal chapel built for the Holy Winding-Sheet (Santo Sudario) by Amadeus IX, duke of Savoy, and the Duchess Yolande of France, Paul II erected a chapter directly subject to the Holy See, and his successor Sixtus IV, united this chapter with the deanery of Savoy.
Champlain, Samuel de
- Founder of Quebec. (1570-1635)
- Controversialist. (1569-1643)
- A biography of the French Orientalist renowned for deciphering hieroglyphics through the triple inscription on the Rosetta Stone.
Champs, Etienne Agard de
- Theologian and author. (1613-1701)
Chanca, Diego Alvarez
- A physician-in-ordinary to Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile and Aragon; dates of birth and death uncertain.
- Part of the choir near the altar of a church, where the deacons or sub-deacons stand to assist the officiating priest.
- Vicariate Apostolic in Travancore, India.
- Patristic scholar, born in 1617, at Vion, in the present Diocese of Le Mans, France; died 28 November, 1664, at the Monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris.
- The endowment of one or more priests to say or sing Mass for the soul of the endower, or for the souls of persons named by him, and also, in the greater number of cases, to perform certain other offices, such as those of choir member in a collegiate church or cathedral, or of curate in outlying districts, or of chaplain in hospitals and jails, or of schoolmaster or librarian.
- Belgian theologian and historian, b. at Liège, 5 January, 1551; d. there 11 May 1617.
- When St. Martin divided his military cloak (cappa) and gave half to the beggar at the gate of Amiens, he wrapped the other half round his shoulders, thus making of it a cape (capella). This cape, or its representative, was afterwards preserved as a relic and accompanied the Frankish kings in their wars, and the tent which sheltered it became known also as cappella or capella. In this tent Mass was celebrated by the military chaplains (capellani). When at rest in the palace the relic likewise gave its name to the oratory where it was kept, and subsequently any oratory where Mass and Divine service were celebrated was called capella, chapelle, chapel.
- Archbishop of New Orleans, U.S.A., b. at Runes Lozère, France, 28 August, 1842; d. at New Orleans, 9 August, 1905.
- Discusses the types including court, beneficed, parochial, domestic, pontifical, and military.
- Comte de Chanteloup, technical chemist and statesman; b. Nogaret, Lozère, France, 4 June, 1756; d. Paris, 30 July, 1832.
- Designates certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies, said to be derived from the chapter of the rule book, which it was the custom to read in the assemblies of monks.
- A building attached to a monastery or cathedral in which the meetings of the chapter are held.
- A consideration of the term as it is used in psychology and ethics.
- Indicates a special effect produced by three of the sacraments, viz. Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy orders.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- Indian missionary in Canada, and in the Louisiana territory, born at Bordeaux, France, 27 April, 1672; died at Quebec, 11 April, 1743.
- A learned French Benedictine of the Congregation of the Saint-Vannes, b. at Yvoi-Varignan in the present department of Ardennes, France, 22 September, 1695; d. at the monastery of St-Arnold in Metz, 21 October, 1771.
Charette de la Contrie, Baron Athanase-Charles-Marie
- French monarchist. (1832-1911)
- A titular see of Thrace.
- The spiritual graces and qualifications granted to every Christian to perform his task in the Church.
Charitable Bequests, Civil Law Concerning
- A charity, in the legal sense of the term, may be defined as a gift to be applied consistently with existing laws, for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons, either by bringing their minds or hearts under the influence of education or religion, by relieving their bodies from disease, suffering, or constraint, by assisting them to establish themselves in life, or by erecting and maintaining public buildings or works or otherwise lessening the burdens of the government.
Charity and Charities
- In its widest and highest sense, charity includes love of God as well as love of man.
Charity, Congregation of the Brothers of
- Founded in Belgium, the rule and constitutions were approved and confirmed by Pope Leo XIII, 4 July, 1899.
Charity, Sisters of, (St. John, New Brunswick)
- Founded in 1854 by Bishop, subsequently Archbishop, Connolly.
Charity, Sisters of, of Jesus and Mary
- A congregation founded in 1803 by Canon Triest, who was known as "the St. Vincent de Paul of Belgium", because he was the founder as well of the Brothers of St. John of God, and the Sisters of the Infant Jesus.
Charity, Sisters of, of Our Lady Mother of Mercy
- A congregation founded in Holland in 1832 by the Rev. John Zwijsen, pastor of Tilburg, aided by Mary M. Leijsen, for the instruction of children and the betterment of a people deprived of spiritual aid by the disastrous effects of the Reformation.
Charity, Sisters of, of Providence
- More accurately, Daughters of Charity, Servants of the Poor, founded in Montreal, Canada, by Bishop Bourget and Madame Jean Baptiste Gamelin (Marie Emélie Eugénie Tavernier), 25 March, 1843.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Elizabeth
- A community founded at Newark, in 1859, by Mother Mary Xavier Mehegan, who for twelve years previously had been a member of the Sisters of Charity, of St. Vincent de Paul in New York.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Louis
- Founded at Vannes in Brittany, in 1803, by Madame Molé, née de Lamoignan, for the education of poor girls, at the suggestion of Bishop de Pancemont, of Vannes, who was her director.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Paul
- These sisters who now add "Of Chartres" to their title to distinguish them from another congregation of the same name, were founded at Chartres in 1704 by Monsignor Maréchaut, a theologian of the Cathedral of Chartres, assisted by Mlle de Tilly and Mlle de Tronche.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul
- A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and spiritual works of mercy.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul (New York)
- Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul founded earlier.
Charity, Sisters of, of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- A congregation begun by five young women in Dublin, Ireland, 8 December, 1831, with the purpose of devoting themselves to the service of God in the education of children.
- Biography of the emperor covering his political, military, and religious entanglements.
Charlemagne and Church Music
- Charlemagne's interest in church music and solicitude for its propagation and adequate performance throughout his empire, have never been equalled by any civil ruler either before or since his time.
Charles Borromeo, Saint
- Biographical article on the Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal, a leading light of the Catholic Reformation.
Charles Garnier, Saint
- Short biography of the Jesuit missionary and martyr.
Charles Joseph Eugene de Mazenod, Saint
- Short biography of the bishop of Marseilles and founder of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate.
Charles Mahony, Blessed
- Irish Franciscan priest who was executed at Ruthin in Wales in 1679. Short article includes a statement by the martyr.
- French monarch, born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741.
Charles V, Emperor
- Born at Ghent, 1500; died at Yuste, in Spain, 1558; was a descendant of the house of Hapsburg, and to this descent owed his sovereignty over so many lands that it was said of him that the sun never set on his dominions.
- The Diocese of Charleston (Carolopolitana) comprises the entire state of South Carolina, U.S.A.
- Historian, b. at St-Quentin, France, 24 October, 1682, d. at La Flèche, 1 February, 1761.
- Diocese includes all Prince Edward Island (formerly called St. John's Island), the smallest province of the dominion of Canada.
- French engraver, inventor, and mechanician, b. at Blois, 1734; d. there 22 July, 1817.
- Article by Charles B. Schrantz notes this French thinker's impact and the regrettable superficiality of his thought.
- From the fact that St. Bruno founded the first house of his austere order at Chartreux, near Grenoble, the institution has ever since been known by the name of that place.
- French poet. (1390-1440)
- Diocese in France. Comprises the department of Eure-et-Loir.
Chartreuse, La Grande
- The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine.
- A medieval manuscript volume or roll (rotulus) containing transcriptions of original documents relating to the foundation, privileges, and legal rights of ecclesiastical establishments, municipal corporations, industrial associations, institutions of learning, and private families.
- Burgundian chronicler, born in the County of Alost, Flanders, in 1403; died at Valenciennes in 1475.
- Missionary among the Huron Indians, born at Senlis, France, in 1606; died at Quebec, 14 August, 1684.
- The virtue which excludes or moderates the indulgence of the sexual appetite.
- Called in Latin casula planeta or pænula, and in early Gallic sources amphibalus, the principal and most conspicuous Mass vestment, covering all the rest.
- French writer, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, 4 September, 1768; d. at Paris, 4 July, 1848.
- The Diocese comprises the northern half of the Province of New Brunswick, Canada, i.e., the counties of Gloucester, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Victoria, and the part of Kent north of the Richibucto River.
- Summary of the author's life and literary contributions.
- Jesuit missionary in North America. (1611-1693)
- Prior of the English Carthusians at Bruges. (d. 1581)
- Canadian statesman. (1820-1890)
Chelm and Belz
- A diocese of the Greek-Ruthenian Rite in Russian Poland, subject directly to the Holy See, and formerly a suffragan of Kiijow.
Cheminais de Montaigu, Timoléon
- Pulpit orator. (1652-1689)
- The largest and most important tribe of Iroquoian stock of the southern section of the United States, and formerly holding the whole southern Alleghany mountain region of North and South Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee, with considerable portions of Alabama, Virginia and Kentucky.
- The name for both a titular see of Crete and a titular see of Thrace, and suffragan to Heracleia.
- Angelic beings or symbolic representations thereof, mentioned frequently in the Old Testament and once in the New Testament.
Cherubini, Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore
- Article with biographical details emphasizing religious music and his time away from its composition.
- Located in England. Though the See of Chester, schismatically created by Henry VIII in 1541, was recognized by the Holy See only for the short space of Queen Mary's reign, the city had in earlier times possessed a bishop and a cathedral, though only intermittently.
Cheverus, Jean-Louis Lefebvre de
- First Bishop of Boston, U.S.A., Bishop of Montauban; Archbishop of Bordeaux, France, and Cardinal, b. at Mayenne, France, 28 January, 1768; d. at Bordeaux 19 July, 1836.
- Chemist, physicist, and philosopher, b. at Angers, France, 31 August, 1786; d. at Paris, 9 April, 1889.
- Diocese established 9 August, 1887.
- Italian poet. (1552-1638)
- The Diocese comprises almost the entire state of that name in the Republic of Mexico. San Cristobal Las Casas, formerly called Ciudad Real, is the episcopal seat, and is the principal city of the state.
- Suffragan of Genoa. A city of the province of Genoa in Northern Italy, situated on a little bay of the Gulf of Genoa.
- In the beginning of the sixteenth century they occupied what is now the departments of Boyaca and Cundinamarca with, possible, a few outlying settlements.
Chicago, Archdiocese of
- Diocese created 28 November, 1842; raised to the rank of an archdiocese, 10 September, 1880.
- Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, England, 1362; d. at Oxford, 12 April, 1441.
- Ancient Catholic Diocese. This see took its rise in consequence of the decree passed at the Council of London in 1075, requiring all bishoprics to be removed from villages to towns.
- Diocese created, 28 May, 1878, a part of the civil and ecclesiastical Province of Quebec.
- Papal nuncio, b. at Vicenza, 1479; d. at Bologna, 6 December, 1539.
- Archdiocese with the perpetual administration of Vasto.
- Diocese in the north of Mexico, comprises the state of Chihuahua.
- Diocese suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mexico, comprises the state of Guerrero, in the south of Mexico.
Children of Mary
- The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin Immaculate of the Miraculous Medal, on which the Church has placed a seal, by appointing the twenty-seventh of November as its feast.
Children of Mary of the Sacred Heart, The
- A Sodality of the Blessed Virgin, founded by Mother Barat of the Society of the Sacred Heart, in the Parish school about 1818, almost simultaneously with the convent itself.
- A comparatively narrow strip of coast-land in South America between the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Andes Mountains on the east, including the watershed.
Chimalpain, Domingo (San Anton y Muñon)
- A Mexican Indian of the second half of the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth centuries, who received a liberal education in the colleges for Indians of Mexico City under the direction of the clergy.
- Includes history, government, education, and religion.
China, History of
- Discusses the origin of the Chinese.
China, The Church in
- The introduction of Christianity into China has been ascribed not only to the Apostle of India, St. Thomas, but also to St. Bartholomew.
- An Aboriginal tribe of the extreme northwest of the United States.
- A sea-coast city in the province of Venice. In antiquity it was known as Fossa Clodia; in the Middle Ages as Clugia.
- One of the Sporades in the Ægean Sea.
- The popular name is a corruption of Ojibwa, a name of uncertain etymology, but generally supposed to refer to the "puckered up" appearance of the seam along the front of the tribal moccasin.
- Suffragan of Siena.
- Considered from three points of view: the military, the social, and the religious.
- An important tribe or confederacy of Muskogean stock formerly holding most of Southern Alabama and Mississippi, with adjoining portions of Louisiana.
- A body of singers entrusted with the musical parts of the Church service, and organized and instructed for that purpose.
- Church architecture term. Strictly speaking, the choir is that part of the church where the stalls of the clergy are.
Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, Gilbert
- French bishop, b. 1613; d. at Paris, 31 December, 1689.
Choiseul, Etienne-François, Duc de
- French statesman, b. 28 June, 1719; d. in Paris 8 May, 1785.
- French missionary to Canadian Indians. (1641-1723)
- A name originally given in the Eastern Church to bishops whose jurisdiction was confined to rural districts.
- French musician and teacher of music. (1772-1834)
- A mixture of oil of olives and balsam, blessed by a bishop in a special manner and used in the administration of certain sacraments and in the performance of certain ecclesiastical functions.
- Formerly used to designate the sheath, or cloth-covering (theca) in which relics were wrapped up.
- A place in a church set apart for the administration of confirmation.
Christ, Order of the Knights of
- A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple.
- Its centre being Christchurch, the Capital of Canterbury, New Zealand. Diocese comprises the provinces of Canterbury and Westland, a small portion of the Province of Nelson, and the Chatham Islands.
- In its wider sense this term is used to describe the part of the world which is inhabited by Christians.
- First Bishop of Prussia, d. 1245.
- That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments.
- Also called ecclesiastical art.
Christian Brothers of Ireland
- An institute founded at Waterford, Ireland, in 1802, by Edmund Ignatius Rice, a merchant of that city.
Christian Charity, Sisters of
- Also called Daughters of the Immaculate Conception, an institute for teaching poor schools and for the care of the blind, founded at Paderborn, Germany, on August, 1849, by Pauline von Mallinckrodt (b. 3 June, 1817, at Minden, Westphalia; d. 30 April, 1881), sister to the famous Hermann von Mallinckrodt.
Christian Doctrine, Confraternity of
- An association established at Rome in 1562 for the purpose of giving religions instruction.
Christian Instruction, Brothers of
- A congregation founded in 1817 at Saint-Brieuc, Côtes-du-Nord, France, by Jean-Marie-Robert de la Mennais (b. 1780; d. 1860), for the instruction of youth.
Christian Knowledge, Society for Promoting
- A society within the Church of England.
Christian Retreat, Congregation of
- There are two branches of this congregation, the Fathers of Christian Retreat and the Sisters. It was founded on the 19th of November, 1789, at Fontenelle, Doubs, France, by Father Antoine-Silvestre Receveur, who was declared Venerable in 1883 by Pope Leo XIII.
- An account is given of Christianity as a religion, describing its origin, its relation to other religions, its essential nature and chief characteristics, but not dealing with its doctrines in detail nor its history as a visible organization.
- Queen of Sweden. Biographical article by P. Wittman.
Christine de Pisan
- Biography, including a list of her major poetic and historical works.
Christine of Stommeln, Blessed
- A visionary at a very early age, became a Beguine, d. 1312.
- Provides a detailed overview of the holiday from the fourth century through the modern age. Includes links to related topics.
Christopher Bales, Blessed
- English priest, who was tortured and martyred less than three years after ordination. Also mentions fellow martyrs Nicholas Horner and Alexander Blake.
Christopher Buxton, Blessed
- Priest who was martyred at Canterbury in 1588, together with Robert Wilcox and Edward Campion.
Christopher Numar of Forli
- Minister General of the Friars Minor and cardinal. (d. 1528)
Christopher Robinson, Blessed
- Wrote an account of the martyrdom of St. John Boste. Was himself martyred for being a priest, in 1598.
Christopher Wharton, Blessed
- Biography of the English priest and martyr, who died in 1600.
- Reigned 903-904.
- Article on this martyr, probably of the third century. Although Christopher has been a center of popular legend since the sixth century, all that can be known for certain is that he was a great martyr.
- Bishop of Metz, d. 766.
- Bishop of Aquileia, anti-Arian theologian, tried to reconcile Rufinus and Jerome, d. 406 or 407.
- The name ordinarily given to a valuable Byzantine chronicle of the world written in the seventh century, so designated because, like many other chronicles of the Middle Ages, it follows a system of Christian chronology based on the paschal canon, or cycle.
- Deals with the dates of the various events recorded in the Bible.
- Mathematical chronology determines the units to be employed in measuring time, and historical chronology which fixes in the general course of time the position of any particular occurrence, or, as it is generally termed, its date.
Chrysanthus and Daria, Saints
- Martyrs at Rome, perhaps in 283 or 284.
- Martyr at Aquileia, probably during the Diocletian persecution.
- A titular see of Roman Arabia.
- Comprises at present the Swiss Cantons of Graubünden (Grisons), Glarus, Zürich, Unterwalden, and Uri, as well as the little Principality of Lichtenstein.
- The proper support of church edifices and church institutions.
- The term church is the name employed in the Teutonic languages to render the Greek ekklesia (ecclesia), the term by which the New Testament writers denote the society founded by Jesus Christ.
Churching of Women
- A blessing given by the Church to mothers after recovery from childbirth.
- The Arachite, i.e. the native of Archi, a place south of the portion of Ephraim, near Bethel.
- A titular see of Cyprus.
- The Diocese comprises the department of Marne, exclusive of the arrondissement of Reims.
- French Orientalist. (1773-1832)
Ciampini, Giovanni Giustino
- Ecclesiastical archæologist. (1633-1698)
- Italian Augustinian and cardinal. (1835-1902)
- A chalice-like vessel used to contain the Blessed Sacrament.
- Missionary, born at Limoges, France, 14 August, 1727; died at Peking, China, 8 August, 1780.
- French theologian and moralist. (d. 1458)
- A titular see of Caria, in Asia Minor. Kibyra, later Kibyrrha, had been founded by the Lycian district inhabited by the Solymi.
- Fifteenth-century Italian sculptor and architect.
Cicognara, Leopoldo, Count
- Politician, writer on art. (1767-1834)
- Popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- The Diocese of Cienfuegos (Centumfocensis), includes all the Province of Santa Clara in the central part of Cuba.
- Carlo, Felice, and Paolo, Bolognese painters.
Cima da Conegliano, Giovanni Battista
- Venetian painter. (1459-1517)
Cimabue, Cenni di Pepo
- Florentine painter. (1240-1301)
- The name given for a long time to the western part of Southern Africa.
- Archdiocese in the state of Ohio.
- More commonly called in England, the girdle is an article of liturgical attire which has been recognized as such since the ninth century.
- A tribe or family often mentioned in the Old Testament, personified as Qayin from which the nomen gentilicium Qeni is derived.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- A titular see of Osrhoene.
- The Hebrew word, like the Greek (peritome), and the Latin (circumcisio), signifies a cutting and, specifically, the removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, from the penis.
Circumcision, Feast of the
- As Christ wished to fulfil the law and to show His descent according to the flesh from Abraham. He, though not bound by the law, was circumcised on the eighth day (Luke, ii, 21), and received the sublime name expressive of His office, Jesus, i.e. Saviour.
- An association of Catholic laymen formed in England to perpetuate the movement which had found expression in the "Declaration and Protestation" signed by the Catholic body in 1789.
- Titular see of Crete.
- The first Cistercian monastery for women was established at Tart in the Diocese of Langres (now Dijon), in the year 1125, by sisters from the Benedictine monastery of Juilly, and with the co-operation of St. Stephen Harding, Abbot of Cîteaux.
- Religious of the Order of Cîteaux, a Benedictine reform, established at Cîteaux in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme in the Diocese of Langres, for the purpose of restoring as far as possible the literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict.
Cistercians in the British Isles
- St. Stephen Harding, third Abbot of Cîteaux (1109-33), was an Englishman and his influence in the early organization of the Cistercian Order had been very great. It was natural therefore that, when, after the coming of St. Bernard and his companions in 1113, foundations began to multiply, the project of sending a colony of monks to England should find favourable consideration.
- A legal act through which a person, by mandate of the judge, is called before the tribunal for trial.
Citeaux, Abbey of
- Founded in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme, in a deserted and uninhabited part of the Diocese of Châlons-sur Saône.
- A titular see of Armenia.
Città della Pieve, Diocese of
- A city of obscure origin in the province of Perugia in Umbria, Central Italy.
Città di Castello, Diocese of
- A town in the province of Perugia, in Umbria, Central Italy.
- Bishopric-Priorate of the Military Orders of Spain, directly subject to the Holy See.
- Suffragan of the Diocese of Santiago; comprises the greater part of the province of Salamanca, and a portion of the province of Cáceres.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- The duty of loyalty and obedience which a person owes to the State of which he is a citizen.
Civitavecchia and Corneto, Diocese of
- An important and fortified Mediterranean seaport, in the province of Rome.
Cività Castellana, Orte, and Gallese
- A town in the Province of Rome, on the Treia.
Clairvaux, Abbey of
- The third daughter of Cîteaux and mother in the fourth line of numerous and celebrated monasteries, founded in 1115 by St. Bernard, in a deep valley upon the bank of the Aube, and known as the Vallée d'Absinthe.
Clandestinity (in Canon Law)
- Strictly speaking, clandestinity signifies a matrimonial impediment introduced by the Council of Trent to invalidate marriages contracted at variance with the exigencies of the decree "Tametsi", commonly so called because the first word of the Latin text is tametsi.
Clare of Assisi, Saint
- Cofounded the "Poor Clares" with St. Francis. She died in 1253.
Clare of Montefalco, Saint
- Abbess, claimed by both the Franciscans and the Augustinians, d. 1308.
Clare of Rimini, Blessed
- Widow, penitent, Poor Clare, superior of the convent at Rimini, contemplative, d. 1346.
- English priest, date of birth unknown, executed at Winchester, 29 Nov., 1603.
Claude de la Colombière, Saint
- Jesuit missionary, ascetical writer, spiritual director to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. He died in 1682.
- A Christian woman of Rome, whose greeting to Timothy St. Paul conveys with those of Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, "and all the brethren".
- Gallo-Roman theologian and the brother of St. Mamertus, Bishop of Vienne, d. about 473.
- Titular see in Asia Minor.
- A titular see of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
Clavigero, Francisco Saverio
- Mexican Jesuit. (1731-1787)
- Mathematician and astronomer. (1538-1612)
- Danish cartographer. (b. 1388)
- Priest, confessor of the faith, b. at Sheffield, England, date of birth not know; d. a prisoner in Derby gaol, 22 July, 1588.
- Titular see of Asia Minor.
Clean and Unclean
- The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral.
Cleef, Jan van
- Flemish painter. (1646-1716)
Cleef, Joost van
- Flemish painter. (1520-1556)
Cleef, Martin van
- Flemish painter. (1520-1570)
Clemens non Papa
- Composer. (d. 1558)
Clemens, Franz Jacob
- German Catholic philosopher, b. 4 October, 1815, at Coblenz; d. 24 February, 1862, at Rome.
Clement I, Pope Saint
- Lengthy article on Clement I, also called Clemens Romanus, the fourth pope and the first of the Apostolic Fathers.
Clement II, Pope
- Reigned 1046-47.
Clement III, Pope
- Reigned 1187-1191.
Clement IV, Pope
- Reigned 1265-68.
Clement IX, Pope
- Reigned 1667-1669.
Clement Mary Hofbauer, Blessed
- Second founder of the Redemptorists, called "the Apostle of Vienna," d. 1821.
Clement of Alexandria, Saint
- Fairly lengthy article on his life and writings.
Clement of Ireland, Saint
- Also known as Clemens Scotus. Famed scholar and teacher of youth, died no earlier than 818.
Clement V, Pope
- Reigned 1305-14.
Clement VI, Pope
- Born 1291 in the castle of Maumont, departmentof Corrèze, France, elected pope, 7 May, 1342, at Avignon, where he died 6 December, 1352.
Clement VII, Pope
- Reigned 1523-34.
Clement VIII, Pope
- Reigned 1592-1605.
Clement X, Pope
- Reigned 1670-1676.
Clement XI, Pope
- Reigned 1700-1721.
Clement XII, Pope
- Reigned 1730-1740.
Clement XIII, Pope
- Reigned 1758-69.
Clement XIV, Pope
- Reigned 1769-1774.
- Date of birth uncertain; died at Brussels 28 Aug., 1626, great-nephew of Sir Thomas More's friend, Dr. John Clement.
- President of the College of Physicians and tutor to St. Thomas More's children, born in Yorkshire about 1500; died 1 July, 1572.
- The name given to the religious romance in two forms as composed by Pope St. Clement I.
- Date of birth unknown; died about 1580. He was b. in Wales and educated at Oxford, where he was admitted Bachelor of Canon Law in 1548.
- According to the Catholic English versions the name of two persons mentioned in the New Testament. In Greek, however, the names are different, one being Cleopas, abbreviated form of Cleopatros, and the other Clopas.
- A term formerly applied to any window or traceried opening in a church, e. g. in an aisle, tower, cloister, or screen, but now restricted to the windows in an aisled nave, or to the range of wall in which the high windows are set.
- A person who has been legitimately received into the ranks of the clergy.
- Canonist, born 1633, at Padua; died 1717.
- The initial words of a Bull issued 25 Feb., 1296, by Boniface VIII in response to an earnest appeal of the English and French prelates for protection against the intolerable exactions of the civil power.
- Bishop of Bath and Wells; date of birth unknown; died 3 January, 1541.
Clerke, Agnes Mary
- Astronomer, born at Skibbereen, County Cork, Ireland, 10 February, 1842; died in London, 20 January 1907.
Clerke, Ellen Mary
- Journalist and novelist, b. at Skibbereen, County Cork, Ireland, 1840; d. in London, 2 March 1906.
- Those bodies of men in the Church who by the very nature of their institute unite the perfection of the religious state to the priestly office, i.e. who while being essentially clerics, devoted to the exercise of the ministry in preaching, the administration of the sacraments, the education of youth, and other spiritual and corporal works of mercy, are at the same time religious in the strictest sense of the word, professing solemn vows, and living a community life according to a rule solemnly approved of by the sovereign pontiff.
Clerks Regular of Our Saviour
- A religious congregation instituted in its present form in 1851, at Benoite-Vaux in the Diocese of Verdun, France.
Clerks Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca
- A congregation founded by St. Giovanni Leonardi.
- Comprises the entire department of Puy-de-Dôme and is a suffragan of Bourges.
Cletus, Pope Saint
- Says that "Cletus" is only another form of "Anacletus," briefly explains how the error of thinking the two names are two different popes came about, says that Cletus died in about 88.
- The Diocese, established 23 April, 1847, comprises all that part of Ohio lying north of the southern limits of the Counties of Columbiana, Stark, Wayne, Ashland, Richland, Crawford, Wyandot, Hancock, Allen, and Van Wert, its territory covering thirty-six counties.
- Theologian. (1472-1543)
- English Divine. (d. 1670)
- Diocese of England, consisting of Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, and Wiltshire.
- Spanish bishop, b. at Castellon de la Plana (Valencia), 1706; d. there 25 Nov., 1781.
- A suffragan of Armagh, Ireland, which comprises the County Monaghan, almost the whole of Fermanagh, the southern portion of Tyrone, and parts of Donegal, Louth, and Cavan.
- The English equivalent of the Latin word clausura (from claudere, "to shut up").
Clonard, School of
- Situated on the river Boyne. Founded by St. Finnian, an abbot and great wonder-worker.
- The Diocese, a suffragan see of the metropolitan province of Tuam, was founded in 557 by St. Brendan the Navigator.
Clonmacnoise, Abbey and School of
- Situated on the Shannon, about half way between Athlone and Banagher, King's County, Ireland.
- Queen of the Franks, wife of King Clovis I and grandmother of St. Cloud. Devoted to St. Martin of Tours and instrumental in the conversion of the Franks, she died in 545.
- The family name of several generations of painters.
Clovesho, Councils of
- Notable as the place at which were held several councils of the Anglo-Saxon Church.
- Italian miniaturist, called by Vasari "the unique" and "little Michelangelo", b. at Grizani, on the coast of Croatia, in 1498; d. at Rome, 1578.
- King of the Salic Franks. (466-511)
Cloyne, Diocese of
- Comprises the northern half of County Cork.
Cluny, Congregation of
- The earliest reform, which became practically a distinct order, within the Benedictine family.
- Irish Franciscan and annalist, b. about 1300; d., probably, in 1349.
Clémanges, Mathieu-Nicolas Poillevillain de
- French Humanist and theologian, b. in Champagne about 1360; d. at Paris between 1434 and 1440.
- Benedictine historian, b. at Painblanc, in the department of Côte-d'Or, France, 1703; d. at Paris, 5 August, 1778.
- A member of the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur and historian; born at Bèze in the department of Côte-d'Or, France, 1714; died at Paris, 29 March, 1793.
- The bishops who assist the presiding bishop in the act of consecrating a new bishop.
- The term is now generally reserved to the practice of educating the sexes together; but even in this sense it has a variety of meanings.
- Spanish Jesuit missionary. (1582-1657)
- A Capuchin friar, so called from his birthplace, Coccaglio in Lombardy, date of birth unknown; d. 1793.
- The city from which this diocese takes its name is the capital of the department of Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Cochem, Martin of
- German theologian, preacher and ascetic writer, born at Cochem, a small town on the Moselle, in 1630; died in the convent at Waghäusel, 10 September, 1712.
Cochin, Diocese of
- Erected and constituted a suffragan of the Diocese of Goa, of which it had previously formed a part, by the Bull "Pro excellenti praeeminentia" of Paul IV, 4 February, 1558.
- Preacher and philanthropist. (1726-1783)
- Author of religious, pedagogical, and sociological works. (1823-1872)
- Humanist and Catholic controversialist, b. 1479; d. 11 Jan., 1552, in Breslau.
- A titular see of Armenia.
- The name given to a manuscript in leaf form, distinguishing it from a roll.
- Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from Alexandria and had been the property of the patriarch of that see.
- Manuscript of the Latin Vulgate Bible, kept at Florence in the Bibliotheca Laurentiana.
- Greek, New Testament manuscript.
Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus
- The last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, received its name from the treatises of St. Ephraem the Syrian (translated into Greek) which were written over the original text.
- A Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, of the greatest antiquity and value; found on Mount Sinai, in St. Catherine's Monastery, by Constantine Tischendorf.
- A quarto volume written in uncial letters of the fourth century.
- Catholic divine, chiefly known for his attempt to introduce into England the "Institute of Secular Priests Living in Community", founded in Bavaria by Bartholomaus Holzhauser.
- Preacher and controversialist, born 1574, at Château-du-Loir, province of Maine, France; died Paris, 21 April, 1623.
- Abbot of the School of Clonmacnoise in Ireland, who flourished during the latter half of the eighth century.
- Friar Minor and missionary, born at Münster, in 1435; died at Louvain, 11 December, 1515.
- King of Mercia (reigned 704-709); date of birth and death unknown.
Coeur d'Alêne Indians
- A small tribe of Salishan stock formerly ranging along the lake and river of the same name in northern Idaho.
- English Jesuit and missionary. (1570-1626)
Coffin, Robert Aston
- Ecclesiastical writer and bishop. (1819-1885)
- Sixth-century Irish monk and author.
Cogolludo, Diego López de
- Seventeenth-century Mexican historian.
- A Discalced Carmelite (Augustin-Marie of the Blessed Sacrament, generally known as Father Hermann), born at Hamburg, Germany, 10 November, 1820; died at Spandau, 20 January, 1871.
Coimbatore, Diocese of
- Includes the Collectorate of Coimbatore (except the Taluk of the Collegal), the Nilgiris with the south-eastern Wynaad, the Taluks of Palgat, Collancodoo, Tamalpuram, and part of Wallavanad, the Chittur Taluks, and the Nelliampathy Hills in the Cochin territory.
Coimbra, Diocese of
- Located in Portugal.
Coimbra, University of
- University in Portugal.
- Marquis de Seignelay, statesman, b. at Rheims, France, 1619; d. at Paris, 1683.
- English confessor. (1500-1579)
- Controversialist, politician, and secretary of the Duchess of York. (d. 1678)
Coleridge, Henry James
- Writer and preacher. (1822-1893)
- Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral and founder of St. Paul's School, London; b. in London, 1467; d. there 18 Sept., 1519.
- Priest and historian, b. at Venice, 1680; d. in the same city, 1765.
- Founder of the Colettine Poor Clares (Clarisses), d. 1447.
- Hagiographer and historian, b. in County Donegal, Ireland, about the beginning of the seventeenth century; d. probably in 1657.
- The city of Colima, the capital of the state of the same name in Mexico, is situated on the Colima River, at an altitude of 1400 feet, and was founded in the year 1522 by Gonzalo de Sandoval.
- Superior of the Sulpicians in Canada, b. at Bourges, France, in 1835; d. at Montreal, 27 November, 1902.
- French priest, founder of the Marists. (1790-1875)
- Known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, commenced A.D. 72 by Vespasian, the first of the Flavian emperors, dedicated by Titus A.D. 80.
- Sixteenth-century Spanish missionary.
Colle de Val d'Elsa
- Diocese in Italy.
- The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at Lauds, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers.
- The book which contains the Collects.
- Article discussing the development which took the form of a contribution in money, corresponding particularly to what is conveyed by the French word quête.
- The term is sometimes employed as a substitute for socialism.
- The word college, from the Latin collegium, originally signified a community, a corporation, an organized society, a body of colleagues, or a society of persons engaged in some common pursuit.
College (in Canon Law)
- A collection of persons united together for a common object so as to form one body.
- This term designates The Twelve Apostles as the body of men commissioned by Christ to spread the kingdom of God over the whole world and to give it the stability of a well-ordered society.
- An adjective applied to those churches and institutions whose members form a college.
Collège de France, The
- Founded in the interest of higher education by Francis I.
Colman Mac Lenine, Saint
- Founder and patron saint of the Diocese of Cloyne, poet, d. 601.
- Monk of Iona, bishop of Lindisfarne, later founded the Abbey and Diocese of Mayo, d. 676.
- First bishop and patron saint of Dromore. Born in Dalaradia c. 450, date of death uncertain.
- Hermit, monastic founder, bishop of Kilmacduagh, d. 632.
- Abbot, d. about 595. This St. Colman was a contemporary of St. Aidan, and is sometimes confused with a later saint of the same name, Colman of Kilmacduagh.
- Irishman martyred while on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, near Vienna in 1012.
Colman, Saint Elo
- Nephew of St. Columba. This St. Colman was the first abbot of Muckamore. He died at Lynally (Lann Elo) in 611.
Colman, Saint MacCathbad
- Bishop of Kilroot and a contemporary of St. Ailbe.
- Friar Minor and English martyr: date of birth uncertain; died in London, 1645.
Colmar, Joseph Ludwig
- Bishop of Mainz; born at Strasburg, 22 June, 1760; died at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1818.
- German city and archbishopric.
Cologne, University of
- Near the end of the fourteenth century Urban VI, at the instance of the Town Council, issued (21 May, 1388) the Bull of foundation.
Colomba of Rieti, Blessed
- Third Order Dominican, intensely devoted to the Eucharist, d. 1501.
- Forms the north-west corner of the South American Continent.
- The Archdiocese of Colombo, situated on the western seaboard of the Island of Ceylon, includes two of the nine provinces into which the island is divided, viz. the Western and the Northwestern.
Colombo, Mateo Realdo
- Italian anatomist and discoverer of the pulmonary circulation, b. at Cremona in 1516; d. at Rome, 1559.
- A titular see of Armenia.
- A titular see in Armenia Prima.
- A celebrated family which played an important role in Italy during medieval and Renaissance times.
- A Scholastic philosopher and theologian, b. about the middle of the thirteenth century, probably 1247, in Rome.
Colonna, Giovanni Paolo
- Noted church composer of the seventeenth century.
- Italian poet, born at Marino, 1490; died at Rome, February 25, 1547.
- A number of columns symmetrically arranged in one or more rows.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- The thirty-fifth, in point of admission, of the United States of America.
Colossians, Epistle to the
- One of the four Captivity Epistles written by St. Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome.
- A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, suppressed in 1894.
- The Church directs that the vestments worn by ministers, and the drapery used in the decoration of the altar should correspond in colour to that which is prescribed for the Office of the day.
Columba (of Spain), Saint
- A nun beheaded by the Muslims in 853.
Columba of Sens, Saint
- Woman martyred towards the end of the third century.
Columba of Terryglass, Saint
- A disciple of St. Finnian of Clonard, and himself taught St. Fintan. This St. Columba founded the monastery of Tirdaglas, and died of the plague in 552.
- Also known as Columcille. Long article on the Irish-born monk, founder and abbot of Iona. He died in 597.
- Irish-born abbot of Luxeuil and Bobbio, author of a monastic rule and of a penitential, d. 615. Biography.
Columbia University (Oregon)
- Formerly known as Portland University, located on the east bank of the Willamette River in northern Portland, and is conducted by the Congregation of Holy Cross, whose mother-house is at Notre Dame, Indiana.
- Lengthy biographical article on the explorer.
Columbus, Diocese of
- This portion of the State belonged originally to the Diocese of Cincinnati, and was recommended to Rome for erection as a see by the Fathers of the Second Plenary Council, of Baltimore, held in 1866.
- Architectural term for a supporting pillar.
- Diocese; suffragan of Ravenna.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- The Diocese of Comayagua, suffragan to Guatemala, includes the entire Republic of Honduras in Central America.
- Patrologist, b. November, 1605, at Marmande in Guyenne; d. at Paris, 23 March, 1679.
Comellas y Cluet, Antonio
- Philosopher. (1832-1884)
- Founder and abbot of the monastery of Bangor, d. 597 or 602.
Commandments of God (The Ten Commandments)
- The fundamental obligations of religion and morality and embodying the revealed expression of the Creator's will in relation to man's whole duty to God and to his fellow-creatures.
Commandments of the Church
- Article includes: I. the nature of the Commandments of the Church in general; II. the history of the Commandments of the Church; and III. their classification.
Commemoration (in Liturgy)
- The recital of a part of the Office or Mass assigned to a certain feast or day when the whole cannot be said.
- An ecclesiastic, or sometimes a layman, who holds an abbey in commendam.
Commendone, Giovanni Francesco
- Cardinal and Papal Nuncio, born at Venice, 17 March, 1523; died at Padua, 26 Dec., 1584.
Commentaries on the Bible
- Includes: I. Jewish Commentaries; II. Patristic; III. Medieval; IV. Modern Catholic; and V. Non-Catholic.
Commines, Philippe de
- French historian and statesman, b. in Flanders probably before 1447; d. at the Château d'Argenton, France, about 1511.
Commissariat of the Holy Land
- In the Order of Friars Minor the territory or district assigned to a commissary, whose duty it is to collect alms for the maintenance of the Holy Places in Palestine committed to the care of the Friars Minor; also, in a more restricted sense, the convent where the aforesaid commissary resides.
- One who has received power from a Legitimate superior authority to pass judgment in a certain cause or to take information concerning it.
- Bodies of ecclesiastics juridically established and to whom are committed certain specified functions or charges.
- A Christian poet, the date of whose birth is uncertain, but generally placed at about the middle of the third century.
- Roman Emperor, born 161; died at Rome, 31 December, 192.
Common Life, Brethren of the
- A community founded by Geert De Groote, born at Deventer in Gelderland in 1340; died 1384.
Common Sense, Philosophy of
- The term common sense designates (1) a special faculty, the sensus communis of the Aristotelean and Scholastic philosophy; (2) the sum of original principles found in all normal minds; (3) the ability to judge and reason in accordance with those principles (recta ratio, good sense).
Commune, Martyrs of the Paris
- Article on the priests who were killed in Paris in May 1871.
- A technical expression in the theology of the Incarnation. It means that the properties of the Divine Word can be ascribed to the man Christ, and that the properties of the man Christ can be predicated of the Word.
- The term Communion is used, not only for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, but also as a shortened form for the antiphon that was originally sung while the people were receiving the Blessed Sacrament.
- An adaptation of the sanctuary guard or altar rail.
Communion of Children
- Article includes (1) the ancient practice, and (2) the present discipline of the Church in regard to the Communion of children.
Communion of Saints
- The doctrine expressed in the second clause of the ninth article in the received text of the Apostles' Creed: "I believe... the Holy Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints".
Communion of the Sick
- Differs from ordinary Communion as to the class of persons to whom it is administered, as to the dispositions with which it may be received, and as to the place and ceremonies of administration.
Communion under Both Kinds
- Communion under one kind is the reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist under the species or appearance of bread alone, or of wine alone, Communion under two or both kinds, the distinct reception under the two or both species, sub utraque specie, at the same time.
- In its more general signification communism refers to any social system in which all property, or at least all productive property, is owned by the group, or community, instead of by individuals.
- An important town in the province of Lombardy (Northern Italy), situated on Lake Como, the ancient Lacus Larius.
Compagnie du Saint-Sacrement
- Seventeenth-century secret society.
- Denotes the price paid for human exertion or labour.
- An extra-legal manner of recovering from loss or damage; the taking, by stealth and on one's private authority, of the value or equivalent of one's goods from a person who refuses to meet the demands of justice.
Competency, Privilege of
- The competency of a cleric means his right to proper sustenance.
- Scholarly essay on what is essentially a bedtime prayer, often recited privately.
- A famous city of Spain, situated on an eminence between the Sar (the Sars of Pomponius Mela) and Sarela.
Compromise (in Canon Law)
- In a general sense, a mutual promise or contract of two parties in controversy to refer their differences to the decision of arbitrators.
- Or Conall. Bishop of Drum, County Roscommon--now called Drumconnell, after the saint. Blood brother of St. Attracta. St. Conal died in about 500.
- Also known as Mochonna. Irish missionary and Bishop of the Isle of Man, d. 684.
- The rite by which several priests say Mass together, all consecrating the same bread and wine.
- Located in the Republic of Chile, suffragan to Santiago de Chile.
- A branch of the Order of Saint Clare, founded by Beatriz de Silva.
- The discussion and adjustment of mutual differences by employers and employees or their representatives.
- Dominican preacher. (1687-1756)
- The closed room or hall specially set aside and prepared for the cardinals when electing a pope; also the assembly of the cardinals for the canonical execution of this purpose.
Concordances of the Bible
- Lists of Biblical words arranged alphabetically with indications to enable the inquirer to find the passages of the Bible where the words occur.
- In general, a concordat means an agreement, or union of wills, on some matter.
Concordat of 1801, The French
- This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope Pius VII and Bonaparte, First Consul, re-established the Catholic Church in France.
Concordia, Diocese of
- Erected 2 August, 1887, and is situated in the northwestern part of Kansas, U.S.A.
Concordia, Diocese of
- Located in Italy, suffragan of Venice.
- The meaning of the term in Roman law, and consequently in early ecclesiastical records and writings, was much the same; a concubine was a quasi-wife, recognized by law if there was no legal wife.
- In its widest acceptation, concupiscence is any yearning of the soul for good; in its strict and specific acceptation, a desire of the lower appetite contrary to reason.
- A special competitive examination prescribed in canon law for all aspirants to certain ecclesiastical offices to which is attached the cure of souls.
Condamine, Charles-Marie de la
- Explorer and physicist, b. at Paris, 28 January, 1701; d. there 4 February, 1774.
Condillac, Ettiene Bonnot de
- Article by G.M. Sauvage. Divides Condillac's career into an early Lockean phase and a later, more original phase.
- That which is necessary or at least conducive to the actual operation of a cause.
- Carmelite reformer, b. at Rennes towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. at Rome, 1433.
- Meetings of clerics for the purpose of discussing, in general, matters pertaining to their state of life, and, in particular, questions of moral theology and liturgy.
- Architectural term, originally used to designate the burial-place of a confessor or martyr, gradually came to have a variety of applications: the altar erected over the grave; the underground cubiculum which contained the tomb; the high altar of the basilica erected over the confession; later on in the Middle Ages the basilica itself; and finally the new resting-place to which the remains of a martyr had been transferred.
- A title of honour to designate of the Faith who had confessed Christ publicly in time of persecution and had been punished with imprisonment, torture, exile, or labour in the mines, remaining faithful in their confession until the end of their lives.
- Describes its origin from Biblical texts and how it has been handed down through the ages. The rite is briefly described, and the minister, matter, form, recipient, effects, necessity and sponsors are detailed.
- A general confession of sins; it is used in the Roman Rite at the beginning of Mass and on various other occasions as a preparation for the reception of some grace.
- A voluntary association of the faithful, established and guided by competent ecclesiastical authority for the promotion of special works of Christian charity or piety.
- An article by Charles F. Aiken. Reviews the key teachings and history of Confucianism, and its relation to Christianity.
- An account written before the annexation of the state by the Belgian government.
Congregatio de Auxiliis
- A commission established by Pope Clement VIII to settle the theological controversy regarding grace which arose between the Dominicans and the Jesuits towards the close of the sixteenth century.
- In his Instruction on sacred music, commonly referred to as the Motu Proprio (22 Nov., 1903), Pius X says (no. 3): "Special efforts are to be made to restore the use of Gregorian chant by the people, so that the faithful may again take a more active part in ecclesiastical offices, as was the case in ancient times".
- The successful establishment of the New England colonies was an event of the utmost importance in the development of Congregationalism, a term preferred by the American Puritans to Independency and gradually adopted by their coreligionists in Great Britain.
- Includes information on the history and types of congresses held.
- A canonical term to designate the lowest sum proper for the yearly income of a cleric.
- The term by which theologians denote a theory according to which the efficacy of efficacious grace is due, at least in part, to the fact that the grace is given in circumstances favourable to its operation, i. e. "congruous" in that sense.
- The name by which Jesuits of the University of Coimbra in Portugal were known.
Coninck, Giles de
- Jesuit theologian. (1571-1633)
- Second Bishop of New York, U.S.A., b. at Slane, Co. Meath, Ireland, 1750; d. New York, 6 February, 1825.
- Reigned 686-687.
Conrad of Ascoli, Blessed
- Italian-born Franciscan missionary to Africa, d. 1289.
Conrad of Hochstadt
- Archbishop of Cologne and Imperial Elector (1238-1261), date of birth unknown; d. 28 September, 1261.
Conrad of Leonberg
- A Cistercian monk and Humanist, b. at Leonberg in Swabia in 1460; d. at Engenthal near Basle after 1520.
Conrad of Marburg
- Confessor of Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia and papal inquisitor, b. at or near Marburg, Germany, in the second half of the twelfth century; d. 30 July, 1233.
Conrad of Offida, Blessed
- Italian Franciscan, trusted by Brother Leo, on good terms with the Spiritual Franciscans, founded the Celestines but returned to the main branch of the Franciscans when a later pope suppressed the Celestines. Bl. Conrad died 12 December, 1306.
Conrad of Piacenza, Saint
- Married man, penitent, Third Order Franciscan hermit, d. 1351.
Conrad of Saxony
- Friar Minor and ascetical writer, date and place of birth uncertain; d. at Bologna in 1279.
Conrad of Urach
- Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina; born about 1180; d. 1227.
Conrad of Utrecht
- Bishop; born in Swabia at an unknown date; killed at Utrecht, 14 April, 1099.
Conradin of Bornada
- Dominican preacher, b. in the latter part of the fourteenth century; d. at Bologna, 1 November, 1429.
- Archbishop of Tuam, patriot, theologian and founder of the Irish (Franciscan) College of St. Anthony at Louvain, born in Galway, 1560; died at Madrid, 18 Nov., 1629.
- Cardinal and statesman. (1757-1824)
Consanguinity (in Canon Law)
- The term here means, within certain limitations defined by the law of nature, the positive law of God, or the supreme authority of State or Church, the blood-relationship (cognatio naturalis), or the natural bond between persons descended from the same stock.
- The individual, as in him customary rules acquire ethical character by the recognition of distinct principles and ideals, all tending to a final unity or goal, which for the mere evolutionist is left very indeterminate, but for the Christian has adequate definition in a perfect possession of God by knowledge and love, without the contingency of further lapses from duty.
- Flemish novelist, b. at Antwerp, 3 December, 1812; d. at Brussels, 10 September, 1883.
- In its widest sense it includes all sensations, thoughts, feelings, and volitions, in fact the sum total of mental life.
- An act by which a thing is separated from a common and profane to a sacred use, or by which a person or thing is dedicated to the service and worship of God by prayers, rites, and ceremonies.
Consent (in Canon Law)
- The deliberate agreement required of those concerned in legal transactions in order to legalize such actions.
- The name of a fifth-century Gallo-Roman family, three of whose representatives are known in history.
- A judge delegated by the pope to defend certain privileged classes of persons, as universities, religious orders, chapters, the poor from manifest or notorious injury or violence, without recourse to a judicial process.
- The origin of the papal consistory is closely connected with the history of the Roman presbytery or body of the Roman clergy.
- Date of birth uncertain; d. 27 March, 1746.
- English Jesuit controversialist. (1676-1743)
- Formerly the seat of a diocese.
Constance, Council of
- A (partly) ecumenical council held at Constance, now in the Grand Duchy of Baden, from 5 Nov., 1414, to 22 April, 1418.
- Titular see of Arabia.
- Comprises the present arrondissement of Constantine in Algeria.
- A medieval medical writer and teacher; born c. 1015; died c. 1087.
Constantine the Great
- Information on the Roman emperor.
- Reigned 708-715.
- Capital, formerly of the Byzantine, now of the Ottoman, Empire. (As of 1908, when the article was written.)
Constantinople, Council of
- A particular council held in A.D. 382.
Constantinople, Council of
- Particular council held in A.D. 754.
Constantinople, Council of, in Trullo
- Particular council held in A.D. 692.
Constantinople, Councils of
- Three Photian synods held in 861, 867, and 879.
Constantinople, Councils of
- Particular councils held in 1639 and 1672.
Constantinople, First Ecumenical Council of
- Called in May, 381, by Emperor Theodosius, to provide for a Catholic succession in the patriarchal See of Constantinople, to confirm the Nicene Faith, to reconcile the semi-Arians with the Church, and to put an end to the Macedonian heresy.
Constantinople, Fourth Ecumenical Council of
- The Eighth General Council was opened, 5 October, 869, in the Cathedral of Saint Sophia, under the presidency of the legates of Adrian II.
Constantinople, Second Ecumenical Council of
- This council was held at Constantinople (5 May-2 June, 553), having been called by Emperor Justinian. It was attended mostly by Oriental bishops; only six Western (African) bishops were present.
Constantinople, The Rite of
- The Liturgies, Divine Office, forms for the administration of sacraments and for various blessings, sacramentals, and exorcisms, of the Church of Constantinople.
Constantinople, Third Ecumenical Council of
- The Sixth General Council was summoned in 678 by Emperor Constantine Pogonatus, with a view of restoring between East and West the religious harmony that had been troubled by the Monothelistic controversies.
Constantius, Flavius Julius
- Roman emperor (317-361).
- In legal language the term constitutiones denotes only church ordinances, civil ordinances being termed leges, laws.
- Ordinations issued by the Roman pontiffs and binding those for whom they are issued, whether they be for all the faithful or for special classes or individuals.
- This heretical doctrine is an attempt to hold the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist without admitting Transubstantiation.
- A certain number of priests in each diocese of the United States who act as official advisers of the bishop in certain matters pertaining to the administration of the diocese.
Contant de la Molette, Philippe du
- Theologian and Biblical scholar, born at Côte-Saint-André, in Dauphiné, France, 29 August, 1737; died on the scaffold during The Terror, 1793.
- Venetian statesman and cardinal, born 16 October, 1483, of an ancient and noble family in Venice; died at Bologna, 24 August, 1542.
- Italian painter of the Venetian School, born at Venice about 1549; died in 1605.
- The idea of contemplation is connected with that of mystical theology.
- A life ordered in view of contemplation; a way of living especially adapted to lead to and facilitate contemplation, while it excludes all other preoccupations and intents.
- Dominican theologian and preacher. (1641-1674)
- Defined as abstinence from even the licit gratifications of marriage.
- Aside from its secondary and more obvious meaning (as, for instance, its qualification of the predicable accident, of a class of modal propositions, and so on), the primary and technically philosophical use of the term is for one of the supreme divisions of being, that is, contingent being, as distinguished from necessary being.
- The canonical and moralist doctrine on this subject is a development of that contained in the Roman civil law. In civil law, a contract is defined as the union of several persons in a coincident expression of will by which their legal relations are determined.
Contract, The Social
- Includes contents and critique.
- Lat. contritio, a breaking of something hardened.
Contumacy (in Canon Law)
- Contumacy, or contempt of court, is an obstinate disobedience of the lawful orders of a court.
- Jesuit economist and exegete. (1573-1635)
- (1) A religious community of either sex when spoken of in its corporate capacity. (2) The buildings in which resides a community of either sex.
Convent Schools (Great Britain)
- Convent education is treated here not historically but as it is at the present day. (Article written in 1908.)
Conventuals, Order of Friars Minor
- One of the three separate bodies, forming with the Friars Minor and the Capuchins what is commonly called the First Order of St. Francis.
- Suffragan to Bari. Conversano, situated in the province of Bari, in Apulia (Southern Italy), is the ancient Cupersanum, a city of the Peucetians.
- Lay brothers in a religious order. The term was originally applied to those who, in adult life, voluntarily renounced the world and entered a religious order to do penance and to lead a life of greater perfection.
- Refers to a moral change, a turning or returning to God and to the true religion.
Convocation of the English Clergy
- The technical name given in the Church of England to what corresponds in some respects to a provincial synod, though in other respects it differs widely from it.
- Second Bishop of Philadelphia, U.S.A., b. at Moneymore, County Derry, Ireland, in 1745; d. at Philadelphia, 22 April, 1842.
- Archdiocese with the perpetual administration of Campagna (Campaniensis).
- The Vicariate Apostolic of Cooktown comprises North Queensland, Australia, from 16°30' south latitude to Cape York, and from the Pacific Coast to the boundary of Northern Territory.
Coombes, William Henry
- Described as a spiritual and self-denying priest, an eminent scholar and theologian. (1767-1850)
- A village on the shore of Lake Titicaca, province of Omasuyos, in northern Bolivia.
- A vestment which may most conveniently be described as a long liturgical mantle, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp.
Copenhagen, University of
- Founded by a Bull which Sixtus IV issued 19 June, 1475, at the request of King Christian I.
- Latinized form of Niclas Kopernik, the name of the founder of the heliocentric planetary theory; born at Torun (Thorn), 19 February, 1473, died at Frauenburg, 24 May, 1543.
Coppée, François Edouard Joachim
- Poet, dramatist and novelist, b. at Paris, 26 January, 1842; d. 23 May, 1908.
- Details of the Morgan and the British Museum's collections.
- A titular see of Upper Egypt.
- Jesuit missionary and army chaplain. (1706-1765)
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- English Jesuit. (1604-1649)
Corbie, Monastery of
- A Benedictine abbey in Picardy, in the Diocese of Amiens, dedicated to Sts. Peter and Paul.
- Bishop of Freising, in Bavaria, born about 680 at Chatres near Melun, France; died 8 September, 730.
Corcoran, James Andrew
- Theologian, editor, and Orientalist, b. at Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A., 30 March, 1820; d. at Philadelphia, 16 July, 1889.
- Soldier, b. at Carrowkeel, County Sligo, Ireland, 21 September, 1827; d. at Fairfax Court House, Virginia, U.S.A., 22 December, 1863.
Cord, Confraternities of the
- Pious associations of the faithful, the members of which wear a cord or cincture in honour of a saint, to keep in mind some special grace or favour which they hope to obtain through his intercession.
Cordara, Guilo Cesare
- Italian Jesuit historian. (1704-1785)
- English missionary priest, b. 5 October, 1720; d. at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 26 January, 1791.
- Exegete and editor of patristic works, b. at Antwerp, 7 June, 1592; d. at Rome, 24 June, 1650.
- Diocese in Spain, formerly suffragan of Toledo, since 1851 of Seville.
- Diocese in the Argentine Republic, suffragan of Buenos Aires.
Cordova, Juan de
- Dominican sent to Oaxaca in 1548 to minister to the Indians.
Core, Dathan, and Abiron
- Leaders of a revolt against Moses and Aaron (Num., xvi).
- Vicariate apostolic, coextensive with the Empire of Corea; it was created a distinct vicariate Apostolic, 9 September, 1831.
- One of the Ionian Islands, at the entrance of the Adriatic, opposite the Albanian coast, from which it is separated by a narrow channel.
- Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Toledo; it includes nearly the entire province of Céceres, with the exception of a few parishes that belong to the Diocese of Salamanca.
- A titular archiepiscopal see of Greece.
Corinthians, Epistles to the
- The historical and internal evidence that they were written by St. Paul is overwhelmingly strong.
Coriolis, Gaspard-Gustave de
- French mathematician. (1792-1843)
Cork, Diocese of
- In Ireland, suffragan of Cashel.
Cork, School of
- The founder of the School and Diocese of Cork was Barra or Bairre (Barry), more commonly called Finbarr the Fair-haired.
- An English Benedictine, born in 1636 in Yorkshire; died 22 December, 1715, at Paddington near London.
- Irish bishop and King of Cashel. (836-908)
Cornaro, Elena Lucrezia Piscopia
- A learned Italian woman of noble descent, born at Venice, 5 June, 1646; died at Padua, 26 July, 1684.
- French artist. (1646-1695)
Corneille, Michel, the Elder
- French painter, etcher, and engraver, b. in Orléans about 1601; d. at Paris, 1664.
Corneille, Michel, the Younger
- French painter, etcher and engraver, b. in Paris in 1642; d. at the Gobelins manufactory at Paris, 16 August, 1708.
- Also called Jacob van Amsterdam or van Oostzann, and at times confounded with a Walter van Assen, a Dutch painter of the first third of the sixteenth century.
- A centurion of the Italic cohort, whose conversion at Cæsarea with his household is related in Acts 10.
Cornelius Cornelii a Lapide
- Flemish Jesuit and exegete, b. at Bocholt, in Flemish Limburg, 18 December, 1567; d. at Rome, 12 March, 1637.
- Fresco painter and illustrator. (1783-1867)
Cornelius, Pope Saint
- Had to contend with the antipope Novatian. When persecution broke out, Cornelius was exiled, and he died a martyr in 253.
Cornely, Karl Josef Rudolph
- German biblical scholar and Jesuit, b. 19 April, 1830, at Breyell in Germany; d. at Treves, 3 March, 1908.
- French theologian, born at Amiens, 1572; died at Paris, 1663.
- The uppermost division of the entablature, the representative of the roof, of an order, consisting of projecting mouldings and blocks, usually divisible into bed-moulding, corona, and gutter.
Cornillon, Abbey of
- Founded by Albero, Bishop of Liége, in 1124, three years after St. Norbert had formed the Premonstratensian Order.
Cornoldi, Giovanni Maria
- Professor, author, and preacher, born at Venice, 29 Sept., 1822; d. at Rome, 18 Jan., 1892.
Coronado, Francisco Vasquez de
- Explorer, b. at Salamanca, Spain, 1500; d. in Mexico, 1553.
- Discussed as (I) The Emperors at Constantinople; (II) Visigothic and Celtic Elements; (III) The English Coronation Orders; (IV) The Western Empire and the Roman Pontifical; and (V) Other Ceremonials.
Coronel, Gregorio Nuñez
- Theologian, writer, and preacher, b. in Portugal, about 1548; d. about 1620.
- Franciscan sent to Yucatan, Mexico, in 1590, and there so familiarized himself with the Maya language that he was able to teach it, the historian Cogolludo being one of his pupils.
- A square white linen cloth, now usually somewhat smaller than the breadth of an altar, upon which the Sacred Host and chalice are placed during the celebration of Mass.
- An association recognized by civil law and regarded in all ordinary transactions as an individual. An artificial person.
Corporation Act of 1661
- Belongs to the general category of test acts, designed for the express purpose of restricting public offices to members of the Church of England.
Corpus Christi, Feast of
- This feast is celebrated in the Latin Church on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday to solemnly commemorate the institution of the Holy Eucharist.
Corpus Juris Canonici
- The term corpus here denotes a collection of documents; corpus juris, a collection of laws, especially if they are placed in systematic order.
- The admonishing of one's neighbor by a private individual with the purpose of reforming him or, if possible, preventing his sinful indulgence.
- The text-forms of the Latin Vulgate resulting from the critical emendation as practised during the course of the thirteenth century.
- Third Archbishop of New York, b. 13 August, 1839, at Newark, New Jersey, d. at New York, 5 May, 1900.
Corrigan, Sir Dominic
- Physician, b. 1802, in Dublin, Ireland; d. there, 1880; distinguished for his original observations in heart disease, a special type of pulse being named after him.
- The third island of the Mediterranean in point of size, only Sicily and Sardinia being of greater extent.
Cortese, Giovanni Andrea
- Cardinal and monastic reformer, b. 1483 at Modena; d. 21 Sept., 1548.
- Immediately subject to the Holy See.
- Conqueror of Mexico, born at Medellin in Spain c. 1485; died at Castilleja de la Cuesta near Seville, 2 December, 1547.
Corvey, Abbey of
- Benedictine monastery in the Diocese of Paderborn, in Westphalia, founded c. 820.
- A titular see of Cilicia Trachæa in Asia Minor.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
Cosa, Juan de la
- Navigator and cartographer, according to tradition b. in 1460 at Sta. Maria del Puerto (Santona), on the Bay of Biscay, Spain, d. on the coast of the Gulf of Uraba, 28 February, 1510.
- An archdiocese immediately subject to the Holy See. A city in the province of Calabria, Southern Italy, at the confluence of the Crati and the Busento.
- Second Bishop of Davenport, Iowa. (1834-1906)
- Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University, England.
- Eighth century Byzantine hymn writer.
Cosmas and Damian, Saints
- Short hagiography of these twins, physicians, and martyrs. They died on 27 September, probably in the year 287.
- A Greek traveller and geographer of the first half of the sixth century.
Cosmas of Prague
- Bohemian historian, b. about 1045, at Prague, Bohemia; d. there, 21 October, 1125.
- A peculiar style of inlaid ornamental mosaic introduced into the decorative art of Europe during the twelfth century.
- By this term is understood an account of how the universe (cosmos) came into being (gonia - gegona = I have become). It differs from cosmology, or the science of the universe, in this: that the latter aims at understanding the actual composition and governing laws of the universe as it now exists; while the former answers the question as to how it first came to be.
- In our day cosmology is a branch of philosophical study, and therefore excludes from its investigation whatever forms the object of the natural sciences.
- Italian painter of the school of Ferrara, b. about 1430; d. probably at Ferrara, 1485.
- A narrow isthmus between Panama in the east and the Republic of Nicaragua in the north, the Caribbean Sea on the north-east and the Pacific Ocean on the south-west.
- Ferrarese painter, b. at Ferrara in 1460; d. at Mantua in 1535.
Costadoni, Giovanni Domenico
- Frequently known as Dom Anselmo, his name in religion, an Italian Camaldolese monk, historian, and theologian, b. 6 October, 1714, at Venice; d.23 January, 1785, in the same city.
- Theologian, born at Mechlin, 16 June, 1532 (1531); died at Brussels, 16 December, 1619.
- In almost every country and every order of the clergy, the clothing has its own distinctive features.
- Miniature-painter, born in Florence, Italy, 1759; died at Lodi, 5 January, 1535.
- Patristic scholar and theologian, born December, 1629, at Nîmes; died 19 August, 1686.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- French Jesuit, born 7 March, 1564, at Néronde in Forez; died 19 March, 1626, at Paris.
- A suffragan diocese of Reggio.
Coucy, Robert De
- A medieval French master-builder and son of a master-builder of the same name.
Coudert, Frederick René
- Born in New York, 1 March, 1832; died at Washington, D. C., 20 December, 1903.
- Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I.
- The difference between a precept and a counsel lies in this, that the precept is a matter of necessity while the counsel is left to the free choice of the person to whom it is proposed.
- Denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648.
- The term originated in the fourteenth century, though the art designated by it had been practiced for several centuries previous.
Court (in Scripture)
- The word court, in the English Bible, corresponds to the Hebrew haçer enclosed space. Also, in the English Bible the word court is occasionally used to mean the retinue of a person of high rank and authority.
- Archbishop of Canterbury, born in the parish of St. Martin's, Exeter, England, c. 1342; died at Maidstone, 31 July, 1396.
- Legislative, judicial, and executive power to be exercised over the church, without any interference on the part of civil society.
- French painter, sculptor, etcher, engraver, and geometrician, born at Soucy, near Sens, 1500; died at Sens before 1593, probably in 1590.
- French historian of music, b. at Bailleul, department of Nord, France, 19 April, 1805; d. at Lille, 10 January, 1876.
- Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, b. at Compiègne, France, 30 April, 1654; d. at the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, near Paris, 18 October, 1721.
- French sculptor, b. at Lyons, 9 January, 1658; d. at Paris, 1 May, 1733.
- The Diocese comprises the entire department of La Manche and is a suffragan of the Archbishopric of Rouen.
- Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Pierre at Solesmes and President of the French Congregation of Benedictines. (1817-1890)
- Born in Toledo, Spain, 25 July, 1512; died in Madrid, 27 Sept., 1577.
- The name given to the subscribers (practically the whole Scottish nation) of the two Covenants, the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643.
- Generally, an unreasonable desire for what we do not possess.
- Comprises that part of Kentucky, U. S. A., lying east of the Kentucky River, and of the western limits of Carroll, Owen, Franklin, Woodford, Jessamine, Garrard, Rockcastle, Laurel, and Whitley Counties.
- A hood worn in many religious orders.
- Flemish painter, imitator of Raphael, known as the Flemish Raphael; b. at Mechlin, 1499; d. there 1592.
- French sculptor, b. at Lyons, 29 Sept., 1640; d. at Paris, 10 Oct., 1720.
- Friar Minor, cardinal, and theologian, b. at San Lorenzo near Bolsena, 31 March, 1654; d. at Rome, 18 January, 1729.
- Italian savant, Abbot of the Basilian monastery of Grottaferrata near Rome; b. 24 Dec., 1837, at Bolsena in the Province of Rome: d. there 1 June, 1905.
- The Prince-Bishopric that comprises the western portion of Galacia in Austria, and borders on the diocese of Kielce in Russian Poland, Breslau in Prussia, Tarnow in Galacia, and Zips in Hungary.
Cracow, The University of
- The first documentary evidence regarding the scheme that King Casimir the Great conceived of establishing a university dates from 1362. Urban V favored the plan, and King Casimir issued the charter of the university, 12 May, 1364.
Craigie, Pearl Mary Teresa
- English novelist, dramatist, and convert; b. 3 November, 1867; d. 13 August, 1906.
- Biographical article on the poet.
- Ascetical writer, b. at Dieppe, France, 3 January, 1618; d. at Paris, 4 January, 1692.
Craven, Augustus, Mrs.
- Writer, born 12 April, 1808, in London; died in Paris, 1 April, 1891.
Crawford, Francis Marion
- Novelist. (1854-1909)
Crayer, Gaspar de
- Flemish painter, b. at Antwerp, 1582; d. at Ghent, 1669.
- Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland, b. at Limerick early in the sixteenth century; d. in the Tower of London, in 1585.
- Like other words of the same ending, the term creation signifies both an action and the object or effect thereof. Thus, in the latter sense, we speak of the "kingdoms of creation", "the whole creation", and so on.
- (1) In the widest sense, the doctrine that the material of the universe was created by God out of no pre-existing subject. (2) Less widely, the doctrine that the various species of living beings were immediately and directly created or produced by God, and are not therefore the product of an evolutionary process.
- A small table of wood, marble, or other suitable material placed within the sanctuary of a church and near the wall at the Epistle side, for the purpose of holding the cruets, acolytes' candles, and other utensils required for the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice.
Credi, Lorenzo di
- Florentine painter, b. at Florence, 1459; d. there, 1537.
- The largest and most important Indian tribe of Canada, and one of the largest north of Mexico.
- In general, a form of belief.
Creed, Liturgical Use of
- The public use of creeds began in connection with baptism, in the Traditio and Redditio symboli, as a preparation for that sacrament, and in the preliminary interrogations.
- An important confederacy of Indian tribes and tribal remnants, chiefly of Muskogian stock, formerly holding the greater portion of Central and Southern Georgia and Alabama.
- An institution located at Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A., and conducted by the Jesuit Fathers.
- Swiss Catholic priest. (1816-1889)
Crema, Diocese of
- Suffragan to Milan.
- The custom of burning the bodies of the dead.
- Suffragan of Milan.
- Jesuit missionary in Canada and vicar Apostolic for the Montagnais Indians; b. at Arras, France, 16 March, 1638; d. at Quebec in 1702.
- A companion of St. Paul during his second Roman captivity, appears but once in the New Testament, when he is mentioned as having left the Apostle to go into Galatia.
- The name of several leaders of the Roman aristocracy in the tenth century, during their opposition to the imperial government of the time.
Crescimbeni, Giovanni Mario
- Italian historian of literature, chronicler, and poet, b. in Macerata, 9 Oct., 1663; d. 8 March 1728.
- A Latin canonist of uncertain date and place, flourished probably in the latter half of the seventh century, though it may have been at the end of the sixth or even in the eighth century.
Cressy, Hugh Paulinus Serenus
- Doctor of Theology and English Benedictine monk, b. at Thorpe-Salvin, Yorkshire, about 1605; d. at East Grinstead, Sussex, 10 August, 1674.
- Controversialist, b. 1577 of Yorkshire stock in London; d. about 1623.
- The crib or manger in which the Infant Saviour was laid after his birth is properly that place in the stable or khan where food for domestic animals is put, formed probably of the same material out of which the grotto itself is hewn.
Crime, Impediment of
- Nullifies marriage according to ecclesiastical law, and arises from adultery and homicide separately or together.
- A Græco-Slavonic Rite diocese in Croatia.
Crispin and Crispinian, Saints
- Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution, d. 285 or 286.
Crispin of Viterbo, Saint
- Capuchin lay brother, d. 1750.
- African matron, martyred in Numidia in 304.
- Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary origins and historical values of the books composing the Bible, with the state in which these exist at the present day.
- The art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of the past.
- The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost.
- Italian painter. Little is known of his life, and his b. and d. are usually reckoned by his earliest and latest signed pictures, 1468-93.
- A mountain looking out on the Atlantic ocean from the southern shore of Clew Bay, in the County Mayo, and called "the Sinai of Ireland."
- Includes history, education, and religion.
- Composer, b. at Chioggia near Venice in 1557; d. 15 May, 1609.
- A titular see of Albania.
Croke, Thomas William
- Archbishop of Cashel, Ireland, b. near Mallow, Co. Cork, 24 May, 1824; d. at Thurles, 22 July, 1902.
- Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Ballykilbeg, near Downpatrick, 8 June, 1780; d. 6 April, 1849.
- There are several Irish saints of this name. Brief biographies of some of them.
- The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions.
- A religious order, founded by Théodore de Celles, who, after following the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa on the Crusade, obtained a canonry in the Cathedral of St. Lambert of Liège.
Cross and Crucifix in Archæology
- The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity.
Cross and Crucifix in Liturgy
- Information on the history and uses.
Cross of Jesus, Brothers of the
- A congregation founded in 1820 at Lyons, France, by Father C.M. Bochard, Doctor of the Sorbonne, Vicar-General of the Diocese of Lyons.
Cross, Daughters of the
- The aim of this congregation is to instruct poor country girls, to provide refuges for the young exposed to temptation, to prepare the sick for death, and to care for churches.
Cross, Daughters of the
- Belgian religious congregation.
Cross, Daughters of the Holy
- The first steps towards the foundation of this society were taken in 1625 at Roy, Picardy, by Père Pierre Guérin, Françoise Unalet, and Marie Fannier to provide for the Christian education of girls.
Cross, The True
- (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult; (2) Catholic Doctrine on the Veneration of the Cross; (3) Relics of the True Cross; (4) Principal Feasts of the Cross.
- The cleric or minister who carries the processional cross, that is, a crucifix provided with a long staff or handle.
- German Humanist, b. at Dornheim, in Thuringia, c. 1480; d. probably at Halle, c. 1539.
Crown of Thorns
- Mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded to by the early Christian Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and others, but there are comparatively few writers of the first six centuries who speak of it as a relic known to be still in existence.
- Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet.
Croyland, Abbey of
- A monastery of the Benedictine Order in Lincolnshire.
Cruelty to Animals
- Includes sections on pagan, Old and New Testament, scholastic, and Catholic perspectives.
- A small vessel used for containing the wine and water required for the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.
Crusade, Bull of the
- A Bull granting indulgences to those who took part in the wars against the infidels.
- Expeditions undertaken, in fulfilment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises.
- An order of mendicant friars who went to England in the thirteenth century from Italy.
Cruz, Ramón de la
- Poet, b. at Madrid, Spain, 28 March, 1731; d. in the same city, 4 November, 1795.
- The word originally meant a hidden place, natural or artificial, suitable for the concealment of persons or things.
Crèvecoeur, Hector St. John de
- French agriculturist, b. at Caen, France, 1731; d. at Sarcelles, near Paris, 1813.
- First Bishop of St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. (1799-1857)
- Journalist and historian; b. at Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendee, France, 23 Sept., 1803; d. at Vincennes near Paris, 1 Jan., 1875.
- The Diocese includes the counties of Temes, Torontál, Krassó-Szörény, Arad, Csanád, and a part of Csongrád and Békés, Hungary.
- The largest and westernmost island of the West Indies.
- Diocese in Ecuador.
- Diocese in Spain.
- Erected 23 June, 1891, comprises all the State of Morelos in the Republic of Mexico, and is bounded on the north and the west by the Archdiocese of Mexico, on the east by the Archdiocese of Puebla, and on the south by the Bishopric of Chilapa.
Cueva, Juan de la
- Spanish poet and dramatist. (1550-1607)
- In the Irish language the word was written Ceile-De, meaning companion, or even spouse, of God, with the Latin equivalent in the plural, Colidei, anglicized into Culdees; in Scotland it was often written Kelidei.
- Cardinal, Archbishop of Dublin, born at Prospect, Co. Kildare, Ireland, 29 April, 1803; died at Dublin, 24 October, 1878.
- A bishopric in the north-eastern part of Prussia, founded in 1234, suffragan to Gnessen.
Cummings, Jeremiah Williams
- Publicist, b. in Washington, U.S.A., April, 1814; d. at New York, 4 January, 1866.
Cuncolim, Martyrs of
- On Monday, 25 July, 1583 (N.S.), the village of Cuncolim in the district of Salcete, territory of Goa, India, was the scene of the martyrdom of five religious of the Society of Jesus: Fathers Rudolph Acquaviva, Alphonsus Pacheco, Peter Berno, and Anthony Francis, also Francis Aranha, lay brother.
- A niece of St. Elizabeth of Hungary. Cunegundes married Boleslaus, Duke of Cracow, later King of Poland. Once widowed, she became a Poor Clare. She died in 1292.
Cuneo, Diocese of
- Suffragan to Turin.
- Philologist, b. at LePuy, France, 1821; d. at Oka near Montreal, 1898.
- A spherical ceiling, or a bowl-shaped vault, rising like an inverted cup over a circular, square, or multangular building or any part of it.
- Technically, the exercise of a clerical office involving the instruction, by sermons and admonitions, and the sanctification, through the sacraments, of the faithful in a determined district, by a person legitimately a ppointed for the purpose.
- Literally, one who has the cure (care) or charge of souls, in which sense it is yet used by the Church of England, "All Bishops and Curates".
- A person legally appointed to administer the property of another, who is unable to undertake its management himself, owing to age or physical incompetence, bodily or mental.
- Vicariate apostolic; includes the islands of the Dutch West Indies: Curaçao, Bonaire, and Aruba; Saba, St. Eustatius, and the Dutch part of St. Martin (Leeward Islands).
Curityba do Parana
- Diocese, suffragan of São Sebastião (Rio de Janeiro), Brazil.
- A titular see of Cyprus, suppressed in 1222 by the papal legate, Pelagius.
- Irish-American astronomer. (1796-1889)
- English priest. (d. 1847)
- Irish historian and physician. (d. 1780)
- In its popular acceptation cursing is often confounded, especially in the phrase "cursing and swearing", with the use of profane and insulting language; in canon law it sometimes signifies the ban of excommunication pronounced by the Church.
- A Middle-English poem of nearly 30,000 lines containing a sort of summary of universal history.
- The Latin title of the ecclesiastical heralds or pursuivants pertaining to the papal court.
- A titular see of Africa Proconsularis.
- A titular see of Egypt.
- Cush, like the other names of the ethnological table of Genesis, x, is the name of a race, but it has generally been understood to designate also an individual, the progenitor of the nations and tribes known in the ancient world as Cushites.
- Distinguished humanist and statesman, born at Schweinfurt, Lower Franconia, in 1473; died at Vienna, 19 April, 1529.
Custom (in Canon Law)
- An unwritten law introduced by the continuous acts of the faithful with the consent of the legitimate legislator.
- 1) An under-sacristan. (2) A superior or an official in the Franciscan order.
- Abbot of Wearmouth; a pupil of the Venerable Bede (d. 735).
- Archbishop of Canterbury.
Cuthbert Mayne, Saint
- Englishman, Protestant minister, converted to Catholicism, died a martyr in 1577. Biographical article.
- Biography of this soldier, monk, bishop of Lindisfarne, hermit.
- Diocese; suffragan of São Sebastião (Rio de Janeiro), Brazil.
Cuyo, Virgin of
- According to V. Gambon this statue is probably the one which, together with the church in which it stood, was given to the Franciscans when the Jesuits were expelled (1767) from the country by Charles III.
Cuzco, Diocese of
- Suffragan of Lima, Peru.
- A titular see of Cappadocia in Asia Minor.
- A group of islands in the Ægean Sea.
- A titular see of Crete.
- A titular see of Asia Minor.
- That certain Anglo-Saxon poems still extant were written by one Cynewulf is beyond dispute, for the author has signed his name in them by spelling it out in runic letters which may be so read as to make sense in the context of the poem. It is, however, quite uncertain who this Cynewulf was.
Cynic School of Philosophy
- Founded at Athens about 400 B.C., continued in existence until about 200 B.C. It sprang from the ethical doctrine of Socrates regarding the necessity of moderation and self-denial.
Cyprian and Justina, Saints
- Christians of Antioch martyred at Nicomedia, 26 September, 304. Already in the same century, quite a colorful legend arose about them.
Cyprian of Carthage, Saint
- Long article on this bishop and martyr.
- Bishop of Toulon, student and biographer of St. Caesarius of Arles. Cyprian died in 546.
- An island in the Eastern Mediterranean, at the entrance of the Gulf of Alexandretta.
Cyrenaic School of Philosophy
- Overview of this strain of classical thought, by William Turner.
- A titular see of Northern Africa.
Cyril and Methodius, Saints
- Also called Constantine and Methodius. Biography of these ninth-century brothers, Apostles of the Slavs.
Cyril of Alexandria, Saint
- Article on this Doctor of the Church, and anti-Nestorian theologian.
Cyril of Constantinople, Saint
- Father General of the Carmelites, had a reputation for prophecy, d. about 1235.
Cyril of Jerusalem, Saint
- Bishop, Doctor of the Church, d. 386.
- A titular see of Syria.
Cyrus and John, Saints
- Companions in life and in martyrdom. Beheaded in the Diocletian persecution.
Cyrus of Alexandria
- Melchite patriarch of that see in the seventh century, and one of the authors of Monothelism; d. about 641.
- A titular see of Asia Minor, metropolitan of the ancient ecclesiastical province of Hellespontus.
- The evolution of Czech literature dates back to 863, when Moravia and Bohemia, through the efforts of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, the apostles of these two countries, were converted to Christianity and thus became participants in the great work of civilization.
César de Bus, Blessed
- Priest, founder of two religious congregations dedicated to teaching Christian doctrine, died 1607.
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