A B CD E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Caballero y Ocio, Juan
Priest, remarkable for lavish gifts to the Church and for charity. (1644-1707)
Caballero, Fernán de
Nom de plume of Cecilia Böhl von Faber, a noted Spanish novelist. (1796-1877)
Caballero, Raimundo Diosdado
Writer. (1740-1830)
Cabas
Titular see of Egypt.
Cabassut
French theologian and priest. (1604-1685)
Cabello de Balboa, Miguel
Sixteenth century Spanish priest.
Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nuñez
Born at Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain; dates of birth and death uncertain.
Cabot, John and Sebastian
Navigators and explorers.
Cabral, Francisco
Portuguese missionary in Japan. (1529-1609)
Cabral, Pedralvarez
Portuguese navigator. (b. 1460)
Cabrillo, Estévan
Sixteenth century sailor.
Cadalous
Bishop and antipope. (d.1072)
Caddo Indians
In the earlier period they were commonly known to the Spaniards as Tejas, whence the name of the State, and to the French as Cenis or Assinais.
Cades
The name, according to the Vulgate and the Septuagent, of three, or probably four cities mentioned in Scripture.
Cadillac, Antoine de Lamothe, Sieur de
Founder of Detroit. (1657-1730)
Cadiz, Diocese of
Suffragan of Seville.
Caedmon, Saint
Article on the laborer for the double monastery of Whitby, composer of hymns and other Biblical poems in Anglo-Saxon, who died between 670 and 680.
Caen, University of
Founded in 1432 by Henry VI of England, who was then master of Paris and of a large part of France.
Caeremoniale Episcoporum
A book containing the rites and ceremonies to be observed at Mass, Vespers, and other functions, by bishops and prelates of inferior rank, in metropolitan, cathedral, and collegiate churches.
Caesar of Speyer
Friar Minor and leader of the Cæsarines. (d. 1239)
Caesarea
A Latin titular see, and the seat of a residential Armenian bishopric, in Cappadocia.
Caesarea Mauretaniae
Titular see in North Africa.
Caesarea Palaestinae
Titular see in Palestine.
Caesarea Philippi
A Greek Catholic residential see, and a Latin titular see, in Syria.
Caesarius of Arles, Saint
Bishop, theologian, renowned as a popular preacher, wrote two monastic rules, died 543.
Caesarius of Heisterbach
Cistercian monk. (1170-1240)
Caesarius of Nazianzus, Saint
Physician, brother of St. Gregory of Nazianzus (the Theologian). Caesarius died in late 368 or early 369.
Caesarius of Prüm
Twelfth-century Benedictine abbot and Cistercian monk.
Caesaropolis
Titular see of Macedonia.
Cagli e Pergola, Diocese of
Situated in Umbria (Italy), in the province of Pesaro, suffragan of Urbino.
Cagliari, Archdiocese of
Cagliari, called by the ancient Caralis, is the principal city and capital of the Island of Sardinia, and an important port on the Gulf of Cagliari.
Cahier, Charles
French antiquarian. (1807-1882)
Cahill, Daniel William
Lecturer and controversialist. (1796-1864)
Cahors, Diocese of
Comprising the entire department of Lot, in France.
Caiaphas
Jewish High Priest.
Caiazzo, Diocese of
Situated in the province of Caserta, Italy, amid the mountains of Tifati near the river Volturno.
Caillau, Armand-Benjamin
Priest and writer, born at Paris, 22 October, 1794, died there, 1850.
Cain
First-born of Adam and Eve.
Cainites
A name used for (1) the descendants of Cain, (2) a sect of Gnostics and Antinomians.
Caius
Third-century Christian author.
Caius and Soter, Saints
Popes, having their feast together on 22 April.
Caius, John
Physician and scholar. (1510-1573)
Cajetan, Constantino
Benedictine savant. (1560-1650)
Cajetan, Saint
Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines.
Cajetan, Tommaso de Vio Gaetani
Domincan cardinal, philosopher, theologian, and exegete. (1469-1534)
Calabozo, Diocese of
A town in the State of Miranda, Venezuela, on the River Guárico, 120 miles south-southwest of Caracas.
Calahorra and La Calzada, Diocese of
Suffragan of Burgos, comprising almost all the province of Logroño and part of the provinces of Navarre and Soria. Calahorra.
Calama
Titular see in Africa.
Calancha, Fray Antonio de la
Augustinian monk. (1584-1654)
Calas Case, The
Jean Calas was a French Calvinist, born 19 March, 1698, at La Caparède near Castres, in the department of Tarn; executed 10 March, 1762, at Toulouse.
Calasio, Mario di
Friar Minor and lexicographer. (1550-1620)
Calatayud, Pedro de
Jesuit missionary. (1689-1773)
Calatrava, Military Order of
Founded in Castile, in the twelfth century, as a military branch of the great Cistercian family.
Calcutta, Archdiocese of
Extends along the sea-coast from the Khabadak to the Mahanundi River.
Caldani, Leopoldo Marco Antonio
Italian anatomist and physiologist. (1725-1813)
Caldara, Polidoro (da Caravaggio)
Italian painter. (1492-1543)
Caldas-Barbosa, Domingo
Brazilian poet. (1740-1800)
Calderon de la Barca, Pedro
Spanish dramatist. (1600-1681)
Caleb
Six people with this name are described.
Calendar, Christian
Includes history and Saint's days.
Calendar, Jewish
Details include days, weeks, months, years, and eras.
Calendar, Reform of the
Such alterations were too obvious to be ignored, and throughout the Middle Ages many observers both pointed them out and endeavoured to devise a remedy.
Calepino, Ambrogio
Italian lexicographer. (1440-1510)
Cali, Diocese of
Located in Colombia.
Caliari, Paolo
Eminent painter of the Venetian school. (1528-1588)
California
Includes history, population, education, resources, and religion.
California Missions
Divided into Lower or Old California and Upper California.
Callinicus
Titular see of Asia Minor.
Callipolis
Titular see of Thrace.
Callistus I, Pope Saint
Martyr, d. about 223. Also known as Callixtus or Calixtus.
Callistus II, Pope
Date of birth unknown; died 13 December, 1124.
Callistus III, Pope
Born near Valencia in Spain, 31 December, 1378; died at Rome, 6 August, 1458.
Callières, Louis-Hector de
Thirteenth Governor of New France. (1646-1705)
Callot, Jacques
French etcher, engraver, and painter. (1592-1635)
Cally, Pierre
Philosopher and theologian, b. at Mesnil-Hubert, department of Orne, France, date of birth uncertain; d. 31 December, 1709.
Calmet, Dom Augustin
Celebrated exegetist. (1672-1757)
Caloe
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Caltagirone
A city in the province of Catania, Sicily, built on two eminences about 2000 feet above sea-level, connected by a bridge.
Caltanisetta
The city is situated in a fertile plain of Sicily, on the River Salso, in the vicinity of the most extensive sulphur mines in the world.
Calumny
Etymologically any form of ruse or fraud employed to deceive another, particularly in judicial proceedings.
Calvaert, Dionysius
Painter. (1540-1619)
Calvary, Congregation of Our Lady of
A congregation founded at Poitiers, in 1617, by Antoinette of Orléans-Longueville.
Calvary, Mount
The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
Calvert, Cecilius
Second Lord Baltimore. (1606-1675)
Calvert, Charles
Third Baron of Baltimore, and Second Proprietary Governor of Maryland. (1629-1715)
Calvert, George
First Lord Baltimore, statesman and colonizer. (1580-1632)
Calvert, Leonard
Governor of Maryland. (1607-1647)
Calvert, Philip
Proprietary Governor of Maryland in 1660-1661.
Calvi and Teano, Diocese of
The ancient Cales or Calenum in the Campagna, not far from Capua.
Calvin, John
Born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564.
Calvinism
Calvin succeeded Luther in point of time and was committed to a struggle with Zwingli's disciples at Zurich and elsewhere, known as Sacramentarians.
Calvinus, Justus Baronius
Convert and apologist. (1570-1606)
Calynda
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Camachus
A titular see in Armenia.
Camaldolese
A joint order of hermits and cenobites, founded by St. Romuald at the beginning of the eleventh century.
Camara y Castro, Tomás
Spanish bishop. (1847-1904)
Camargo, Diego Muñoz
Born of a Spanish father and Indian mother soon after 1521; died at a very advanced age, the exact date unknown.
Cambiaso, Luca
Genoese painter, b. at Moneglia near Genoa, in 1527; d. in the Escorial, Madrid, 1585.
Cambrai, Archdiocese of
Comprises the entire Département du Nord of France.
Cambridge, University of
Includes information on history, studies, and buildings.
Cambysopolis
Titular see of Asia Minor.
Camel, George Joseph
Botanist, born at Brunn, in Moravia, 21 April 1661, died in Manila, 2 May, 1706.
Camerino, Diocese of
Situated in the Italian province of Macerata in the Apennines, about 40 miles from Ancona.
Camerlengo
The title of certain papal officials.
Camillus de Lellis, Saint
Biographical article on founder of a religious order devoted to care of the sick and dying.
Camisards
Eighteenth-century French sect.
Campagna, Girolamo
Sculptor born in Verona, 1552; died about 1623 or 1625.
Campagnola, Domenico
Painter of the Venetian school, b. at Padua in 1482; date of death unascertained.
Campan, Jeanne-Louise-Henriette
French educator, born 6 November, 1752, at Paris; died in 1822, at Mantes.
Campanella, Tommaso
In-depth article on the strange career of the Italian anti-Aristotelian Dominican writer.
Campani, Giuseppe
Italian optician and astronomer who lived in Rome during the latter half of the seventeenth century.
Campaña, Pedro
Flemish painter, known in France as Pierre de Champagne, and in Brussels as Pieter de Kempeneer (his actual name), or, as translated in Flemish, Van de Velde, b. at Brussels in 1503; d. there in 1580.
Campbell, James
American public official. (1812-1893)
Campeche
Diocese in the State of Campeche, Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Yucatan.
Campeggio, Lorenzo
Cardinal, an eminent canonist, ecclesiastical diplomat, and reformer.
Campi, Bernardino
Italian painter of the Lombard School, b. at Cremona, 1522; d. at Reggio, about 1590.
Campi, Galeazzo
Italian painter, b. at Cremona, 1475; d. 1536.
Campi, Giulio
Italian painter and architect, b. at Cremona about 1500; died there, 1572.
Campo Santo de' Tedeschi
A cemetery, church, and hospice for Germans on the south side of St. Peter's, Rome.
Camus de Pont-Carré, Jean-Pierre
French bishop, b. 3 November, 1584, at Paris; d. there 25 April, 1652.
Camões, Luis Vaz de
Epic poet, born in 1524 or 1525; died 10 June, 1580.
Cana
A city of Galilee, Palestine.
Canaan, Canaanites
The Hebrew word Kenaan, denoting a person.
Canada
Comprises all that part of North America north of the United States, with the exception of Newfoundland, and Labrador.
Canada, Catholicity in
Treated under three headings: I. Period of French domination, from the discovery of Canada to the Treaty of Paris, in 1763; II. Period of British rule, from 1763 to the present day; III. Present conditions.
Canal, José de la
Ecclesiastical historian.
Canary Islands, The
An archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean facing the western coast of Africa.
Canatha
A titular see of Arabia.
Cancer de Barbastro, Luis
Dominican missionary to the New World. (d. 1549)
Candace
Ethiopian queen.
Candia
The residence of the Greek Metropolitan of Crete, who has seven suffragan sees, Khania, Kisamos, Rethymnon (Retimo), Sitia, Lampa, Arkadia, and Chersonesos.
Candidus
The name of two scholars of the Carlovingian revival of letters in the ninth century.
Candlemas
Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin, Feast of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple.
Candles
The word candle (candela, from candeo, to burn) was introduced into the English language as an ecclesiastical term, probably as early as the eighth century.
Candlesticks
Provides the history of their use in Christian churches.
Canea
Formerly a titular see of Crete, suppressed by a decree of 1894.
Canelos and Macas
Vicariate Apostolic in Ecuador, South America.
Canes, Vincent
Friar Minor and controversialist, born on the borders of Nottingham and Leicestershire, date uncertain; died in London, June, 1672
Canice, Saint
Irish priest, monastic founder, missionary to Scotland, d. 600.
Canisius, Henricus
Canonist and historian, born at Nymwegen in Geldern.
Canisius, Theodorich
Born at Nimwegen, Holland, 1532; died 27 September, 1606, at Ingolstadt.
Cano, Alonso
Spanish painter, architect, and sculptor. (1601-1667)
Cano, Melchior
Article by John R. Volz on the character, teachings, and life of this Dominican bishop and theologian.
Canon
Ecclesiastical person.
Canon
Musical term, the strictest of all contrapuntal forms.
Canon of the Mass
Article divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of the Canon; (III) The text and rubrics of the Canon; (IV) Mystical interpretations.
Canon of the New Testament
The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history.
Canon of the Old Testament
Signifies the authoritative list or closed number of the writings composed under Divine inspiration, and destined for the well-being of the Church.
Canoness
The assistance of women in the work of the Church goes back to the earliest time, and their uniting together for community exercises was a natural development of religious worship.
Canons and Canonesses Regular
According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is essentially a religious cleric.
Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception
A congregation founded in the department of Isère, at Saint-Antoine, France, by the Abbé Dom Adrien Gréa.
Canons, Apostolic
A collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with the Apostolic Constitutions.
Canons, Collections of Ancient
Includes authority and methods.
Canons, Ecclesiastical
Certain rules or norms of conduct or belief prescribed by the Church.
Canopus
A titular see of Egypt.
Canopy
An ornamental covering of cloth, stone, wood, or metal, used to crown an altar, throne, pulpit, or statue.
Canossa
A former castle of Matilda, Countess of Tuscany, in the foothills of the Apennines.
Canova, Antonio
Italian sculptor. (1757-1822)
Cantate Sunday
A name given to the fourth Sunday after Easter.
Canterbury
The Ancient Diocese of Canterbury was the Mother-Church and Primatial See of All England, from 597 till the death of the last Catholic Archbishop, Cardinal Pole, in 1558.
Canticle
Used in the English Catholic translation of the Bible as the equivalent of the Vulgate canticum in most, but not all, of the uses of that word; for where canticum is used for a sacred song.
Canticle of Canticles
One of three books of Solomon, contained in the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Christian Canon of the Scriptures.
Cantor
The chief singer (and sometimes instructor) of the ecclesiastical choir, called also precentor.
Cantù, Cesare
Italian historian and poet, b. at Brivio, 8 December, 1807; d. at Milan, 11 March, 1895.
Canute
King of the English, Danes, and Norwegians, b. about 994; d. at Shaftesbury, 12 November 1035.
Canute IV, Saint
King of Denmark, martyr, d. 1086.
Cap Haïtien
Erected by Pius IX, 3 October, 1861, in the ecclesiastical Province of Port au Prince.
Capaccio and Vallo
Suffragan diocese of Salerno.
Capecelatro, Alfonso
Archbishop of Capua. (1824-1912)
Capefigue, Baptiste-Honoré-Raymond
Historian, b. at Marseilles, 1802; d. at Paris, 22 December, 1872.
Caperolo, Pietro
Friar Minor, date of birth unknown; d. at Velletri in 1480.
Capgrave, John
Augustinian friar, historian, and theologian, b. at Lynn in Norfolk, 21 April, 1393.
Capharnaum
A titular see of Palestine.
Capitolias
A titular see of Palestine, suffragan to Scythopolis in Palestina Secunda.
Capitulations, Episcopal and Pontifical
Agreements, by which those taking part in the election of a bishop or pope imposed special conditions upon the candidate to be fulfilled by him after his election.
Capocci, Gaetano
Italian composer. (1811-1898)
Capponi, Gino, Count
Historian and litterateur; born at Florence, Italy, 13 September, 1792; died 3 February, 1876.
Capranica, Domenico
Cardinal, theologian, canonist, and statesman, b. at Capranica near Palestrina, Italy, in 1400; d. at Rome, 14 July, 1458.
Caprara, Giovanni Battista
Statesman and cardinal, born at Bologna, 29 May, 1733; died at Paris, 27 July, 1810.
Capreolus, John
A theologian, born towards the end of the fourteenth century, (about 1380), in the diocese of Rodez, France; died in that city 6 April, 1444.
Capsa
Titular see of North Africa.
Captain (in the Bible)
In the Douay version captain represents several different Hebrew and Latin words, and designates both civil and military officers.
Captivities of the Israelites
Includes the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman captivities.
Capua
Situated in the province of Caserta, Southern Italy.
Capuchin Friars Minor
An autonomous branch of the first Franciscan Order.
Capuchinesses
A branch of the Poor Clares of the Primitive Observance, instituted at Naples, in 1538, by the Venerable Maria Longo.
Capuciati
From caputium, hood - So named from the headgear which was one of their distinctive marks.
Caquetá
Apostolic prefecture situated in South America on the southern border of the Republic of Colombia.
Carabantes, José de
Friar Minor Capuchin and theologian, born in Aragon, in 1628; died in 1694.
Caracalla
Roman Emperor, son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, b. 188; d. 217.
Caracas
Located in the Republic of Venezuela, a metropolitan see with the Barquisimeto, Calabozo, Guayana, Merida, and Zulia as suffragans.
Caraffa, Vincent
Seventh General of the Society of Jesus. (1585-1649)
Caraites
A Jewish sect professing to follow the text of the Bible (Miqra) to the exclusion of Rabbinical traditions, and hence opposed to the Talmud.
Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Juan
Spanish ecclesiastic and writer. (1606-1682)
Carayon, Auguste
French author and bibliographer. (1813-1874)
Carbery, James Joseph
Third Bishop of Hamilton, Ontario. (1823-1887)
Carbonari
The name of a secret political society, which played an important part, chiefly in France and Italy, during the first decades of the nineteenth century.
Carbonnelle, Ignatius
Professor of mathematics and science. (1829-1889)
Carcassonne
Diocese comprising the entire department of Aude, and suffragan to Toulouse.
Cardan, Girolamo
Italian physician and mathematician. (1501-1576)
Cardenas, Juan
Moral theologian and author. (1613-1684)
Cardica
A titular see of Thessaly.
Cardinal
A dignitary of the Roman Church and counsellor of the pope.
Cardinal Protector
Since the thirteenth century it has been customary at Rome to confide to some particular cardinal a special solicitude in the Roman Curia for the interests of a given religious order or institute, confraternity, church, college, city, or nation.
Cardinal Vicar
The vicar-general of the pope, as Bishop of Rome, for the spiritual administration of the city, and its surrounding district, properly known as Vicarius Urbis.
Cardinal Virtues
The four principal virtues upon which the rest of the moral virtues turn or are hinged.
Cardinals (1913 List)
Members of the College of Cardinals, 1913.
Carducci, Bartolommeo and Vincenzo
Florentine painters, brothers, usually grouped under the Spanish School.
Carem
Name of a town in the Tribe of Juda.
Carey, Mathew
Author and publisher, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 28 January, 1760; d. in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 15 September, 1839.
Carheil, Etienne de
French missionary among the Indians of Canada, born at Carentoir, France, November 1633; died at Quebec, 27 July, 1726.
Cariati
Suffragan of Santa Severina.
Caribs
Next to the Arawaks, probably the most numerous Indian stock, of more or less nomadic habits, in South America.
Carissimi, Giacomo
Detailing his work in and composition for the Roman Catholic Church.
Carli, Dionigi da Piacenza
Seventeenth century Capuchin missionary.
Carlisle
The Catholic was smaller in extent than the present Anglican diocese, which was enlarged in 1856.
Carlovingian Schools
Established under the Merovingian Kings, a school, scola palatina, the chroniclers of the eighth century styled it for the training of the young Frankish nobles in the art of war and in the ceremonies of the court.
Carmel
Designates in the Old Testament a certain city and its adjacent territory in the tribe of Juda.
Carmel, Mount
A well-known mountain ridge in Palestine, usually called in the Hebrew Bible Hakkarmel.
Carmelite Order, The
One of the mendicant orders.
Carneiro, Melchior
Missionary bishop. (d. 1583)
Carnoy, Jean-Baptiste
Belgian biologist. (1836-1899)
Carochi, Horacio
Jesuit missionary to Mexico. (1586-1666)
Caroline Books
A work in four books (120 or 121 chapters), purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne, and written about 790-92.
Caroline Islands
A group of about 500 small coral islands, east of the Philippines, in the Pacific Ocean.
Caron, Raymond
Franciscan friar and author, b. at Athlone, Ireland, in 1605; d. at Dublin, 1666.
Caron, Reneé-Edouard
French Canadian statesman and magistrate. (1800-1876)
Carpaccio, Vittore
Venetian painter whose real name was Scarpazza, b. at Venice about 1455; d. in the same city between 1523 and 1526.
Carpasia
A titular see of Cyprus. Carpasia, Karpasia, also Karpasion is said to have been founded by King Pygmalion near Cape Sarpedon.
Carpi
Situated in the province of Modena, Central Italy.
Carracci
Italian painter, engraver, and etcher, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1557; d. at Parma, 22 March, 1602.
Carranza, Bartolomé
Archbishop of Toledo; b. at Miranda de Arga, Spain, 1503; d. at Rome, 2 May, 1576.
Carranza, Diego
Missionary among the Chontal Indians.
Carreno de Miranda, Juan
Spanish painter, b. at Avilés in Asturia, 1614; d. at Madrid, 1685.
Carrera, Rafael
In 1847 Carrera was, by a kind of election, made President of Guatemala, and seven years later he became dictator, that is, president for life with the right to designate his successor.
Carrhae
A titular see of Mesopotamia.
Carrière, Joseph
Moral theologian, thirteenth superior of the seminary and Society of Saint-Sulpice. (1795-1864)
Carrières, Louis de
Born in the chateau de la Plesse in Avrille, Angers, France, 1 September, 1662; d. at Paris, 11 June 1717.
Carroll of Carrollton, Charles
American statesman. (1737-1832)
Carroll, Daniel
Brother of Archbishop Carroll, b. at upper Marlboro, Maryland, U. S. A., 1733; d. at Washington, 1829.
Carroll, John
First American bishop. (1735-1815)
Cartagena
The city of the same name, residence of the archbishop, is situated on an island to the north of Tierra Bomba, Colombia.
Cartagena
Suffragan of Granada in Spain since the concordat of 1851, previously of Toledo.
Carthage
Founded by Phoenician colonists, and long the great opponent of Rome in the duel for supremacy, was destroyed by a Roman army, 146 B.C. A little more than a century later (44 B.C.), a new city composed of Roman colonists was founded on the site.
Carthage, Saint
Also known as Mochuda. Irish monk, priest, hermit, founder. He composed a monastic rule in Irish verse. Died in 637.
Carthusian Order, The
The name is derived from the French chartreuse through the Latin cartusia, of which the English "charterhouse" is a corruption.
Cartier, Georges-Etienne
French Canadian statesman, son of Jacques Cartier and Marguerite Paradis, b. at St. Antoine, on the Richelieu, 16 Sept., 1814; d. in London 20 May, 1873.
Cartier, Jacques
The discoverer of Canada, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, in 1491; d. 1 September, 1557.
Carvajal, Bernardino Lopez de
Cardinal, b. 1455, at Plasencia in Estremadura, Spain; d. at Rome 16 Dec., 1523.
Carvajal, Gaspar de
Dominican missionary, b. in Estremadura, Spain, c. 1500; d. at Lima, Peru, 1584.
Carvajal, Juan
Cardinal; b. about 1400 at Truxillo in Estremadura, Spain; d. at Rome, 6 December, 1469.
Carvajal, Luis de
Friar Minor and Tridentine theologian, b. about 1500; the time of his death is uncertain.
Carvajal, Luisa de
Born 2 Jan., 1568, at Jaraizejo, Spain; died 2 Jan., 1614, at London, a lady of high birth, who received from God what appears to have been a special vocation to go to England and minister to those who were suffering for the Faith.
Carve, Thomas
Historian, b. in Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1590; d. probably in 1672.
Caryll, John
Poet, dramatist, and diplomatist, b. at West Harting, England, 1625; d. 1711.
Carystus
A titular see of Greece.
Casale Monferatto
A suffragan of Vercelli. Casale Monferrato.
Casali, Giovanni Battista
Musician, b. at Rome in 1715; d. there 1792. From 1759 until his death he held the position of choir-master in the church of St. John Lateran.
Casanare
Vicariate Apostolic in the Republic of Colombia, South America, administered by the Augustinians, subject to the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.
Casanata, Girolamo
Cardinal, b. at Naples, 13 July, 1620; d. at Rome, 3 March, 1700.
Casas, Bartolomé de las
Born at Seville, probably in 1474; d. at Madrid, 1566.
Caserta
The capital of the province of that name in Southern Italy.
Casey, John
Mathematician, b. at Kilkenny, Ireland, 12 May, 1820; d. at Dublin, 3 Jan, 1891.
Casgrain, Henri Raymond
Author of French Canadian literature. (1831-1904)
Cashel
A town in the County Tipperary, Ireland, which is also a Catholic archbishopric and the see of a Protestant bishop.
Casimir, Saint
Prince of Poland, remained unmarried by choice, d. in 1484 at the age of 25.
Casium
A titular see of Lower Egypt.
Casot, Jean-Jacques
The last surviving Jesuit of the old Canada mission, born in Liège, Belgium, 4 October, 1728; died at Quebec, 16 March, 1800.
Cassander, George
Flemish Humanist and theologian. (1513-1566)
Cassani, Joseph
Spanish Jesuit. (1673-1686)
Cassano all' Ionio
Suffragan of Reggio.
Casserly, Patrick S.
Educator, b. in Ireland; d. in New York, where for many years he conducted a classical school.
Cassian, John, Saint
Article on the monk and ascetic writer, who attempted to convey the teaching and way of life of the desert fathers and mothers to the fledgling monastic movement in Gaul.
Cassidy, William
Journalist, essayist, critic, b. at Albany, New York, U.S.A., 12 Aug., 1815; d. there 23 Jan., 1873.
Cassini, Giovanni Domenico
Italian astronomer. (1625-1712)
Cassiodorus
Roman writer, statesman, and monk, b. about 490; d. about 583.
Casson, François Dollier de
Fourth superior of Saint-Sulpice, Montreal, Canada, b. near Nantes, France, 1636; d. in 1701.
Cassovia
Diocese in Hungary, founded in 1804 by the division of the Diocese of Agria, in the archdiocese of the same name, and the Dioceses of Cassovia and Szatmar.
Castabala
A titular see of Asia Minor, Latin title suppressed, 1894.
Castagno, Andrea
Florentine painter, b. near Florence, 1390; d. at Florence, 9 August, 1457.
Castellammare di Stabia
The seat of the diocese is an industrial city, situated on the Bay of Naples, on a slope of Monte Gauro, and famous for its health-giving mineral springs.
Castellaneta (Castania)
Suffragan of Taranto.
Castellanos, Juan de
Soldier, priest, and epic poet, born in Spain in the first half of the sixteenth century; date of death unknown.
Castelli, Benedetto
Mathematician and physicist; b. at Perugia, Italy, 1577; d. at Rome, 1644.
Castelli, Pietro
Italian physician and botanist, b. at Rome in 1574; d. at Messina in 1662.
Castello, Giovanni Battista
Italian painter, sculptor, and architect; b. at Gandino, in the Valle Seriana, in the territory of Bergamo, in 1509 (some writers state 1500 or 1506); d. at Madrid in 1579.
Castiglione, Baldassare
Italian prose-writer, b. at Casatico, near Mantua, 6 December, 1478; died at Toledo, Spain, 7 February, 1529.
Castiglione, Carlo Ottavio
Philologist and numismatist, b. of an ancient family at Milan, Italy, 1784; d. at Genoa, 10 April, 1849.
Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto
Painter and etcher, b. at Genoa, Italy, 1616; d. at Mantua, 1670.
Castile and Aragon
The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon.
Castillejo, Cristóbal de
Spanish poet, b. in Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca), 1491; d. in Vienna, 12 June, 1556.
Castner, Caspar
Jesuit missionary to China. (1655-1709)
Castoria
A titular see of Macedonia.
Castracane degli Antelminelli, Francesco
Naturalist, b. at Fano, Italy, 19 July, 1817; d. at Rome 27 March, 1899.
Castro Palao, Fernando
Spanish theologian. (1581-1633)
Castro y Bellvis, Guillen de
Spanish dramatic poet, b. of a noble family at Valencia in 1569; d. at Madrid in 1631.
Castro, Alphonsus de
Friar Minor and theologian, b. in 1495 at Zamora, Leon, Spain; d. 11 February 1558, at Brussels.
Casuistry
The application of general principles of morality to definite and concrete cases of human activity, for the purpose, primarily, of determining what one ought to do, or ought not to do, or what one may do or leave undone as one pleases; and for the purpose, secondarily, of deciding whether and to what extent guilt or immunity from guilt follows on an action already posited.
Caswall, Edward
Oratorian and poet, b. 15 July 1814, at Yately, Hampshire, of which place his father, the Rev. R. C. Caswall, was vicar; d. at the Oratory, Birmingham, 2 January, 1878.
Catacombs, Roman
The subject is covered under the headings: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. Paintings; V. Sarcophagi; VI. Small Objects Found in the Catacombs; and VII. Catacombs outside Rome.
Catafalque
Derived from the Italian word catafalco, literally means a scaffold or elevation, but in its strictly liturgical sense the word is employed to designate the cenotaph-like erection which is used at the exequial offices of the Church, and takes the place of the bier whenever the remains are not present.
Catalani, Giuseppe
A Roman liturgist of the eighteenth century, member of the Oratory of San Girolamo della Carita (Hieronymite), famous for his correct editions of the chief liturgical books of the Roman Church, which are still in habitual use, and which he enriched with scholarly commentaries illustrative of the history, rubrics, and canon law of the Roman Liturgy.
Catalonia
A principality within the Spanish Monarchy.
Catania
A seaport and capital of the province of the same name in Sicily, situated on the eastern side of Mount Etna.
Catanzaro
Suffragan of Reggio.
Catechumen
In the early Church, was the name applied to one who had not yet been initiated into the sacred mysteries, but was undergoing a course of preparation for that purpose.
Categorical Imperative
A term which originated in Immanuel Kant's ethics.
Category
The term was transferred by Aristotle from its forensic meaning (procedure in legal accusation) to its logical use as attribution of a subject.
Catenæ
Collections of excerpts from the writings of Biblical commentators, especially the Fathers and early ecclesiastical writers, strung together like the links of a chain, and in this way exhibiting a continuous and connected interpretation of a given text of Scripture.
Cathari
From the Greek katharos, pure, literally "puritans", a name specifically applied to, or used by, several sects at various periods.
Cathedra
Three uses of the word are detailed.
Cathedral
The chief church of a diocese.
Cathedraticum
A certain sum of money to be contributed annually for the support of the bishop, as a mark of honour and in sign of subjection to the cathedral church, hence its name.
Catherick, Venerable Edmund
Priest and martyr, born probably in Lancashire about 1605; executed at York, 13 April, 1642.
Catherine de' Medici
Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589; she was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d' Auvergne who, by her mother, Catherine of Bourbon, was related to the royal house of France.
Catherine de' Ricci, Saint
Biography of the cloistered Third Order Dominican nun, mystic, who died in 1590.
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint
Article on the virgin and martyr. In the Middle Ages, one of the most popular saints.
Catherine of Bologna, Saint
Short biography of this Poor Clare, mystic, and writer, who died in 1463.
Catherine of Genoa, Saint
Biography of the mystic and author, who died in 1510.
Catherine of Siena, Saint
Third Order Dominican, hermit, reformer, mystic, d. 1380. Biographical article by Edmund G. Gardner.
Catherine of Sweden, Saint
Daughter of St. Bridget of Sweden. Widow, pilgrim, superior of the Brigittine motherhouse, d. 1381. Biographical article.
Catherine, Monastery of Saint
Situated on Mount Sinai, in a gorge below the Jebel-Musa, the reputed Mountain of the Law.
Catholic
The combination "the Catholic Church" (he katholike ekklesia) is found for the first time in the letter of St. Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, written about the year 110.
Catholic Benevolent Legion
A fraternal assessment life-insurance society organized in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A., 5 September, 1881.
Catholic Club of New York
A social organization described by its constitution as a club which "shall consist of Catholic gentlemen who are governed by a spirit of devotion to the Church and fidelity to the Holy Father".
Catholic Epistle
The name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter.
Catholic Knights of America
A fraternal life-insurance company chartered under the laws of the State of Kentucky, U.S.A. It was founded in Nashville, Tennessee by James J. McLoughlin, D.N. Burke, John Broderick, and John MeDonald.
Catholic Missionary Union
The corporate name of a society whose directors are chosen from among the bishops of the United States, the seminaries, the parishes and the missionary organizations of that country, its purpose being to engage priests and lay-men as missionaries to non-Catholics in the United States, to provide for their maintenance, to distribute Catholic literature, and in every way to assist the bishops in establishing and carrying on home missions in their various jurisdictions.
Catholic University of America
A pontifical institution located in Washington, D.C. It comprises the Schools of the Sacred Sciences, Philosophy, Law, Letters, and Science, each of which includes several departments.
Catholic University of Ireland
The project was launched at the Synod of Thurles in 1850.
Catholicos
The ecclesiastical title of the Nestorian and Armenian patriarchs.
Catrou, François
French historian, b. at Paris, 28 December, 1659; d. there 12 October, 1737.
Cattaro
Suffragan of Zara.
Cauchy, Augustin-Louis
French mathematician, b. at Paris, 21 August, 1789; d. at Sceaux, 23 May, 1857.
Caughnawaga
Also known as Sault St. Louis. An Iroquois reservation, situated on the south bank of the St. Lawrence, about ten miles above Montreal.
Caulet, François-Etienne
A French bishop and Jansenist, b. at Toulouse, 1610; d. at Pamiers, 1680.
Caunus
A titular see of Asia Minor. Kaunos was said to have been founded by Kaunos, son of Miletos and Kyane, on the southern coast of Caria, opposite Rhodes, and was known as Rhodian Peraea, at the foot of Mount Tarbelos.
Cause
Cause, as the correlative of effect, is understood as being that which in any way gives existence to, or contributes towards the existence of, any thing; which produces a result; to which the origin of any thing is to be ascribed.
Caussin, Nicolas
French Jesuit preacher and moralist. (1583-1651)
Cavagnis, Felice
Canonist, b. in Bordogna, Diocese of Bergamo, Italy, 13 January, 1841; d. at Rome, 29 December, 1906.
Cavalieri, Bonaventura
Italian mathematician, b. at Milan in 1598; d. at Bologna, 3 December, 1647.
Cavanagh, James
Soldier, b. in County Tipperary, Ireland, 1831; d. in New York, 7 January, 1901.
Cavazzi, Giovanni Antonio
Of Montecucolo, a Capuchin friar of the province of Bologna, date of birth uncertain; died at Genoa, 1692.
Cavedoni, Celestino
Italian ecclesiastic, archæologist, and numismatist; b. 18 May, 1795, at Levizzano-Rangone, near Modena; d. 26 November, 1865, at Modena.
Cavo, Andres
A writer frequently quoted on Spanish-Mexican history; b. at Guadalajara in Mexico, 21 January, 1729, he entered the Society of Jesus, 14 January, 1758, and went to Italy with the other members of the order after their expulsion from Mexico in 1767.
Caxton, William
Born in the Weald of Kent, c. 1422; died at Westminster, 1491; the first English printer and the introducer of the art of printing into England.
Cayes
Diocese in the republic of Haiti, suffragan to Port-au-Prince.
Caylus, Comte de
French archaeologist, b. at Paris, in 1692; d. in 1765.
Cazeau, Charles-Félix
French-Canadian priest. (1807-1881)
Ceadda, Saint
Commonly known as St. Chad. Seventh-century bishop of Lichfield.
Cebú
Located in the Philippine Islands. Cebú, the diocesan city, spelled also Sebú and Zebú, in the province of the same name.
Cecilia, Saint
Virgin and martyr; patroness of church music.
Cedar
A coniferous tree frequently mentioned in the Bible.
Cedar
The name of the second son of Ismael (Gen., xxv, 13; I Par., i, 29); also of an Arabian tribe descended from him, and of the territory occupied by it.
Cedd, Saint
Brother of St. Chad (Ceadda) and bishop of the East Saxons, d. 664.
Cedes
A Levitical city and place of refuge in Nephtali and a Levitical city of Issachar assigned to the family of Gersom.
Cedron, Brook of
The name designates in Holy Writ the ravine on the east of Jerusalem, between the Holy City and the Mount of Olives.
Cefalù
The city of the same name in the province of Palermo, in Sicily (Italy), is situated nearly in the centre of the northern coast of the island.
Ceillier, Rémi
Patrologist, b. at Bar-le-Duc, 14 May, 1688; d. at Flavigny, 26 May, 1763.
Celebret
A letter which a bishop gives to a priest, that he may obtain permission in another diocese to say Mass, and for this purpose bears testimony that he is free from canonical censures.
Celenderis
A port and fortress in Isauria, founded by the Phoenicians or, according to legend, by Sandacos, son of Astynoös and grandson of Phaethon.
Celestine I, Pope Saint
Excommunicated Nestorius, sent St. Patrick to Ireland, d. 432.
Celestine II, Pope
Reigned 1143-1144.
Celestine IV, Pope
Reigned October-November 1241.
Celestine Order
Also called the Hermits of St. Damian or Hermits of Murrone.
Celestine V, Pope Saint
Benedictine priest and hermit, d. 1296.
Celestines
The name given to certain extreme "Spiritual" Franciscans of the Marches, because they were taken by Celestine V under his special protection.
Celibacy of the Clergy
The renunciation of marriage implicitly or explicitly made, for the more perfect observance of chastity, by all those who receive the Sacrament of Orders in any of the higher grades.
Cella
One of the names by which the small memorial chapels sometimes erected in the Christian cemeteries of the first age were known.
Cellier, Elizabeth
A noted London midwife, who came into prominence through the pretended "Meal-Tub Plot" of 1680.
Celsus the Platonist
An eclectic Platonist and polemical writer against Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the second century.
Celtes, Conrad
German Humanist, b. at Wipfeld in Lower Franconia, 1 February, 1459; d. at Vienna, 4 February, 1508.
Celtic Rite, The
The term "Celtic Rite" is generally, but rather indefinitely, applied to the various rites in use in Great Britain, Ireland, perhaps in Brittany, and sporadically in Northern Spain, and in the monasteries which resulted from the Irish missions of St. Columbanus in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, at a time when rites other than the then existing rite of Rome were used, wholly or partially, in those places.
Cemeteries
The word coemeterium or cimiterium (in Gr. koimeterion) may be said in early literature to be used exclusively of the burial places of Jews and Christians.
Cemeteries in Law
Includes information concerning the laws in the United States and Canada.
Cemeteries, Early Roman Christian
This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome.
Cenacle, Religious of the
The Society of Our Lady of the Cenacle was founded in 1826, at La Louvesc in France, near the tomb of St. John Francis Regis.
Cenalis, Robert
Bishop, historian, and controversialist, b. in Paris, 1483; d. there, 1560.
Ceneda
Situated in the province of Treviso, in former Venetian territory, on a declivity of the Rhaetian Alps.
Censer
A vessel suspended by chains, and used for burning incense at solemn Mass, Vespers, Benediction, processions, and other important offices of the Church.
Censorship of Books
Either ecclesiastical or civil, according as it is practiced by the spiritual or secular authority, and it may be exercised in two ways, viz.: before the printing or publishing of a work, by examining it (censura prævia); and after the printing or publishing, by repressing or prohibiting it (censura repressiva).
Censures, Ecclesiastical
Medicinal and spiritual punishments imposed by the Church on a baptized, delinquent, and contumacious person, by which he is deprived, either wholly of in part, of the use of certain spiritual goods, until he recover from his contumacy.
Censures, Theological
Doctrinal judgments by which the Church stigmatizes certain teachings detrimental to faith or morals.
Census
A canonical term variously defined by different writers.
Central Verein of North America, German Roman Catholic
The origin dates back to 1854, in which year the presidents of three German Catholic benevolent societies of Buffalo, new York, issued a call to various German Catholic societies for the purpose for forming a central body.
Centre (Party), The
This name is given to a political party in the German Reichstag and to a number of parties in the diets of the various states of the German Empire.
Centuriators of Magdeburg
A group of Lutheran scholars who had gathered at Magdeburg, and who are now known to history as the "Centuriators of Magdeburg" because of the way in which they divided their work (century by century) and the place in which the first five volumes were written.
Centurion
A Roman officer commanding a century or company, the strength of which varied from fifty to one hundred men.
Ceolfrid, Saint
Anglo-Saxon Benedictine, abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow, d. 716.
Ceolwulf
King of Northumbria and monk of Lindisfarne, date and place of birth not known; died at Lindisfarne, 764.
Cepeda, Francisco
A very active missionary among the Indians, born in the province of La Mancha, 1532; died at Guatemala, 1602.
Ceramus
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Cerasus
A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus in Asia Minor.
Ceremonial
The book which contains in detail the order of religious ceremony and solemn worship prescribed to be observed in ecclesiastical functions.
Ceremony
In liturgy, an external action, gesture, or movement which accompanies the prayers and public exercise of divine worship.
Cerinthus
A Gnostic-Ebionite heretic, contemporary with St. John; against whose errors on the divinity of Christ the Apostle is said to have written the Fourth Gospel.
Certitude
The word indicates both a state of mind and a quality of a proposition, according as we say, "I am certain", or, "It is certain".
Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de
Spanish author. (1547-1616)
Cervantes, Salazar Francisco
One of the first professors of the University of Mexico, born at Toledo, Spain, probably in 1513 or 1514; went to Mexico in 1550; died there in 1575.
Cervia
Suffragan of Ravenna.
Cesalpino, Andrea
Article by Joseph Rompel dwells upon Cesalpino's botanical accomplishments as well as his philosophical positions.
Cesarini, Giuliano
Born at Rome, 1398; died at Varna, in Bulgaria 10 November, 1444.
Cesena
The ancient Cæsena is a city of Emilia, in the province of Forli (Italy), in the former States of the Church.
Ceslaus, Saint
Polish Dominican, d. about 1242.
Cestra
Titular see of Asia Minor.
Ceva, Thomas
Mathematician. (1648-1737)
Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
An island to the south-east of India and separated from it only by a chain of reefs and sand-banks called Adam's Bridge.
Chachapoyas
Diocese in Peru.
Chadwick, James
Irish bishop. (1813-1882)
Chaignon, Pierre
French Jesuit. (1791-1883)
Chair of Peter
From the earliest times the Church at Rome celebrated on 18 January the memory of the day when the Apostle held his first service with the faithful of the Eternal City.
Chalcedon
A titular see of Asia Minor. The city was founded 676 B. C. by the Megarians on the Bithynian coast, opposite the place where a little later Byzantium rose.
Chalcedon, Council of
The Fourth Ecumenical Council, held in 451, from 8 October until 1 November inclusive, at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor.
Chaldean Christians
The name of former Nestorians now reunited with the Roman Church.
Chalice
Occupies the first place among sacred vessels, and by a figure of speech the material cup is often used as if it were synonymous with the Precious Blood itself.
Challoner, Richard
Bishop of Debra, Vicar Apostolic of the London District, author of spiritual and controversial works, b. 29 Sept., 1691; d. 12 Jan., 1781.
Cham, Chamites
Son of Noe and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ethnographical table is given by Genesis 10.
Chambéry
In 1467, in the ducal chapel built for the Holy Winding-Sheet (Santo Sudario) by Amadeus IX, duke of Savoy, and the Duchess Yolande of France, Paul II erected a chapter directly subject to the Holy See, and his successor Sixtus IV, united this chapter with the deanery of Savoy.
Champlain, Samuel de
Founder of Quebec. (1570-1635)
Champney, Anthony
Controversialist. (1569-1643)
Champollion, Jean-François
A biography of the French Orientalist renowned for deciphering hieroglyphics through the triple inscription on the Rosetta Stone.
Champs, Etienne Agard de
Theologian and author. (1613-1701)
Chanca, Diego Alvarez
A physician-in-ordinary to Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile and Aragon; dates of birth and death uncertain.
Chancel
Part of the choir near the altar of a church, where the deacons or sub-deacons stand to assist the officiating priest.
Changanacherry
Vicariate Apostolic in Travancore, India.
Chantelou, Claude
Patristic scholar, born in 1617, at Vion, in the present Diocese of Le Mans, France; died 28 November, 1664, at the Monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris.
Chantry
The endowment of one or more priests to say or sing Mass for the soul of the endower, or for the souls of persons named by him, and also, in the greater number of cases, to perform certain other offices, such as those of choir member in a collegiate church or cathedral, or of curate in outlying districts, or of chaplain in hospitals and jails, or of schoolmaster or librarian.
Chapeauville, Jean
Belgian theologian and historian, b. at Liège, 5 January, 1551; d. there 11 May 1617.
Chapel
When St. Martin divided his military cloak (cappa) and gave half to the beggar at the gate of Amiens, he wrapped the other half round his shoulders, thus making of it a cape (capella). This cape, or its representative, was afterwards preserved as a relic and accompanied the Frankish kings in their wars, and the tent which sheltered it became known also as cappella or capella. In this tent Mass was celebrated by the military chaplains (capellani). When at rest in the palace the relic likewise gave its name to the oratory where it was kept, and subsequently any oratory where Mass and Divine service were celebrated was called capella, chapelle, chapel.
Chapelle, Placide-Louis
Archbishop of New Orleans, U.S.A., b. at Runes Lozère, France, 28 August, 1842; d. at New Orleans, 9 August, 1905.
Chaplain
Discusses the types including court, beneficed, parochial, domestic, pontifical, and military.
Chaptal, Jean-Antoine
Comte de Chanteloup, technical chemist and statesman; b. Nogaret, Lozère, France, 4 June, 1756; d. Paris, 30 July, 1832.
Chapter
Designates certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies, said to be derived from the chapter of the rule book, which it was the custom to read in the assemblies of monks.
Chapter House
A building attached to a monastery or cathedral in which the meetings of the chapter are held.
Character
A consideration of the term as it is used in psychology and ethics.
Character, Sacramental
Indicates a special effect produced by three of the sacraments, viz. Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy orders.
Charadrus
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Chardon, Jean-Baptiste
Indian missionary in Canada, and in the Louisiana territory, born at Bordeaux, France, 27 April, 1672; died at Quebec, 11 April, 1743.
Chardon, Mathias
A learned French Benedictine of the Congregation of the Saint-Vannes, b. at Yvoi-Varignan in the present department of Ardennes, France, 22 September, 1695; d. at the monastery of St-Arnold in Metz, 21 October, 1771.
Chariopolis
A titular see of Thrace.
Charismata
The spiritual graces and qualifications granted to every Christian to perform his task in the Church.
Charitable Bequests, Civil Law Concerning
A charity, in the legal sense of the term, may be defined as a gift to be applied consistently with existing laws, for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons, either by bringing their minds or hearts under the influence of education or religion, by relieving their bodies from disease, suffering, or constraint, by assisting them to establish themselves in life, or by erecting and maintaining public buildings or works or otherwise lessening the burdens of the government.
Charity and Charities
In its widest and highest sense, charity includes love of God as well as love of man.
Charity, Congregation of the Brothers of
Founded in Belgium, the rule and constitutions were approved and confirmed by Pope Leo XIII, 4 July, 1899.
Charity, Sisters of, (St. John, New Brunswick)
Founded in 1854 by Bishop, subsequently Archbishop, Connolly.
Charity, Sisters of, of Jesus and Mary
A congregation founded in 1803 by Canon Triest, who was known as "the St. Vincent de Paul of Belgium", because he was the founder as well of the Brothers of St. John of God, and the Sisters of the Infant Jesus.
Charity, Sisters of, of Our Lady Mother of Mercy
A congregation founded in Holland in 1832 by the Rev. John Zwijsen, pastor of Tilburg, aided by Mary M. Leijsen, for the instruction of children and the betterment of a people deprived of spiritual aid by the disastrous effects of the Reformation.
Charity, Sisters of, of Providence
More accurately, Daughters of Charity, Servants of the Poor, founded in Montreal, Canada, by Bishop Bourget and Madame Jean Baptiste Gamelin (Marie Emélie Eugénie Tavernier), 25 March, 1843.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Elizabeth
A community founded at Newark, in 1859, by Mother Mary Xavier Mehegan, who for twelve years previously had been a member of the Sisters of Charity, of St. Vincent de Paul in New York.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Louis
Founded at Vannes in Brittany, in 1803, by Madame Molé, née de Lamoignan, for the education of poor girls, at the suggestion of Bishop de Pancemont, of Vannes, who was her director.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Paul
These sisters who now add "Of Chartres" to their title to distinguish them from another congregation of the same name, were founded at Chartres in 1704 by Monsignor Maréchaut, a theologian of the Cathedral of Chartres, assisted by Mlle de Tilly and Mlle de Tronche.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul
A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and spiritual works of mercy.
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul (New York)
Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul founded earlier.
Charity, Sisters of, of the Blessed Virgin Mary
A congregation begun by five young women in Dublin, Ireland, 8 December, 1831, with the purpose of devoting themselves to the service of God in the education of children.
Charlemagne
Biography of the emperor covering his political, military, and religious entanglements.
Charlemagne and Church Music
Charlemagne's interest in church music and solicitude for its propagation and adequate performance throughout his empire, have never been equalled by any civil ruler either before or since his time.
Charles Borromeo, Saint
Biographical article on the Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal, a leading light of the Catholic Reformation.
Charles Garnier, Saint
Short biography of the Jesuit missionary and martyr.
Charles Joseph Eugene de Mazenod, Saint
Short biography of the bishop of Marseilles and founder of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate.
Charles Mahony, Blessed
Irish Franciscan priest who was executed at Ruthin in Wales in 1679. Short article includes a statement by the martyr.
Charles Martel
French monarch, born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741.
Charles V, Emperor
Born at Ghent, 1500; died at Yuste, in Spain, 1558; was a descendant of the house of Hapsburg, and to this descent owed his sovereignty over so many lands that it was said of him that the sun never set on his dominions.
Charleston
The Diocese of Charleston (Carolopolitana) comprises the entire state of South Carolina, U.S.A.
Charlevoix, François-Xavier
Historian, b. at St-Quentin, France, 24 October, 1682, d. at La Flèche, 1 February, 1761.
Charlottetown
Diocese includes all Prince Edward Island (formerly called St. John's Island), the smallest province of the dominion of Canada.
Charpentier, François-Philippe
French engraver, inventor, and mechanician, b. at Blois, 1734; d. there 22 July, 1817.
Charron, Pierre
Article by Charles B. Schrantz notes this French thinker's impact and the regrettable superficiality of his thought.
Charterhouse
From the fact that St. Bruno founded the first house of his austere order at Chartreux, near Grenoble, the institution has ever since been known by the name of that place.
Chartier, Alain
French poet. (1390-1440)
Chartres
Diocese in France. Comprises the department of Eure-et-Loir.
Chartreuse, La Grande
The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine.
Chartulary
A medieval manuscript volume or roll (rotulus) containing transcriptions of original documents relating to the foundation, privileges, and legal rights of ecclesiastical establishments, municipal corporations, industrial associations, institutions of learning, and private families.
Chastellain, Georges
Burgundian chronicler, born in the County of Alost, Flanders, in 1403; died at Valenciennes in 1475.
Chastellain, Pierre
Missionary among the Huron Indians, born at Senlis, France, in 1606; died at Quebec, 14 August, 1684.
Chastity
The virtue which excludes or moderates the indulgence of the sexual appetite.
Chasuble
Called in Latin casula planeta or pænula, and in early Gallic sources amphibalus, the principal and most conspicuous Mass vestment, covering all the rest.
Chateaubriand, François-René
French writer, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, 4 September, 1768; d. at Paris, 4 July, 1848.
Chatham
The Diocese comprises the northern half of the Province of New Brunswick, Canada, i.e., the counties of Gloucester, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Victoria, and the part of Kent north of the Richibucto River.
Chaucer, Geoffrey
Summary of the author's life and literary contributions.
Chaumonot, Pierre-Joseph
Jesuit missionary in North America. (1611-1693)
Chauncy, Maurice
Prior of the English Carthusians at Bruges. (d. 1581)
Chauveau, Pierre-Joseph-Octave
Canadian statesman. (1820-1890)
Chelm and Belz
A diocese of the Greek-Ruthenian Rite in Russian Poland, subject directly to the Holy See, and formerly a suffragan of Kiijow.
Cheminais de Montaigu, Timoléon
Pulpit orator. (1652-1689)
Cherokee Indians
The largest and most important tribe of Iroquoian stock of the southern section of the United States, and formerly holding the whole southern Alleghany mountain region of North and South Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee, with considerable portions of Alabama, Virginia and Kentucky.
Chersonesus
The name for both a titular see of Crete and a titular see of Thrace, and suffragan to Heracleia.
Cherubim
Angelic beings or symbolic representations thereof, mentioned frequently in the Old Testament and once in the New Testament.
Cherubini, Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore
Article with biographical details emphasizing religious music and his time away from its composition.
Chester
Located in England. Though the See of Chester, schismatically created by Henry VIII in 1541, was recognized by the Holy See only for the short space of Queen Mary's reign, the city had in earlier times possessed a bishop and a cathedral, though only intermittently.
Cheverus, Jean-Louis Lefebvre de
First Bishop of Boston, U.S.A., Bishop of Montauban; Archbishop of Bordeaux, France, and Cardinal, b. at Mayenne, France, 28 January, 1768; d. at Bordeaux 19 July, 1836.
Chevreul, Michel-Eugène
Chemist, physicist, and philosopher, b. at Angers, France, 31 August, 1786; d. at Paris, 9 April, 1889.
Cheyenne
Diocese established 9 August, 1887.
Chiabrera, Gabriello
Italian poet. (1552-1638)
Chiapas
The Diocese comprises almost the entire state of that name in the Republic of Mexico. San Cristobal Las Casas, formerly called Ciudad Real, is the episcopal seat, and is the principal city of the state.
Chiavari
Suffragan of Genoa. A city of the province of Genoa in Northern Italy, situated on a little bay of the Gulf of Genoa.
Chibchas
In the beginning of the sixteenth century they occupied what is now the departments of Boyaca and Cundinamarca with, possible, a few outlying settlements.
Chicago, Archdiocese of
Diocese created 28 November, 1842; raised to the rank of an archdiocese, 10 September, 1880.
Chichele, Henry
Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, England, 1362; d. at Oxford, 12 April, 1441.
Chichester
Ancient Catholic Diocese. This see took its rise in consequence of the decree passed at the Council of London in 1075, requiring all bishoprics to be removed from villages to towns.
Chicoutimi
Diocese created, 28 May, 1878, a part of the civil and ecclesiastical Province of Quebec.
Chieregati, Francesco
Papal nuncio, b. at Vicenza, 1479; d. at Bologna, 6 December, 1539.
Chieti
Archdiocese with the perpetual administration of Vasto.
Chihuahua
Diocese in the north of Mexico, comprises the state of Chihuahua.
Chilapa
Diocese suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mexico, comprises the state of Guerrero, in the south of Mexico.
Children of Mary
The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin Immaculate of the Miraculous Medal, on which the Church has placed a seal, by appointing the twenty-seventh of November as its feast.
Children of Mary of the Sacred Heart, The
A Sodality of the Blessed Virgin, founded by Mother Barat of the Society of the Sacred Heart, in the Parish school about 1818, almost simultaneously with the convent itself.
Chile
A comparatively narrow strip of coast-land in South America between the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Andes Mountains on the east, including the watershed.
Chimalpain, Domingo (San Anton y Muñon)
A Mexican Indian of the second half of the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth centuries, who received a liberal education in the colleges for Indians of Mexico City under the direction of the clergy.
China
Includes history, government, education, and religion.
China, History of
Discusses the origin of the Chinese.
China, The Church in
The introduction of Christianity into China has been ascribed not only to the Apostle of India, St. Thomas, but also to St. Bartholomew.
Chinooks
An Aboriginal tribe of the extreme northwest of the United States.
Chioggia (Chiozza)
A sea-coast city in the province of Venice. In antiquity it was known as Fossa Clodia; in the Middle Ages as Clugia.
Chios
One of the Sporades in the Ægean Sea.
Chippewa Indians
The popular name is a corruption of Ojibwa, a name of uncertain etymology, but generally supposed to refer to the "puckered up" appearance of the seam along the front of the tribal moccasin.
Chiusi-Pienza
Suffragan of Siena.
Chivalry
Considered from three points of view: the military, the social, and the religious.
Choctaw Indians
An important tribe or confederacy of Muskogean stock formerly holding most of Southern Alabama and Mississippi, with adjoining portions of Louisiana.
Choir
A body of singers entrusted with the musical parts of the Church service, and organized and instructed for that purpose.
Choir
Church architecture term. Strictly speaking, the choir is that part of the church where the stalls of the clergy are.
Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, Gilbert
French bishop, b. 1613; d. at Paris, 31 December, 1689.
Choiseul, Etienne-François, Duc de
French statesman, b. 28 June, 1719; d. in Paris 8 May, 1785.
Cholonec, Pierre
French missionary to Canadian Indians. (1641-1723)
Chorepiscopi
A name originally given in the Eastern Church to bishops whose jurisdiction was confined to rural districts.
Choron, Alexandre-Etienne
French musician and teacher of music. (1772-1834)
Chrism
A mixture of oil of olives and balsam, blessed by a bishop in a special manner and used in the administration of certain sacraments and in the performance of certain ecclesiastical functions.
Chrismal, Chrismatory
Formerly used to designate the sheath, or cloth-covering (theca) in which relics were wrapped up.
Chrismarium
A place in a church set apart for the administration of confirmation.
Christ, Order of the Knights of
A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple.
Christchurch
Its centre being Christchurch, the Capital of Canterbury, New Zealand. Diocese comprises the provinces of Canterbury and Westland, a small portion of the Province of Nelson, and the Chatham Islands.
Christendom
In its wider sense this term is used to describe the part of the world which is inhabited by Christians.
Christian
First Bishop of Prussia, d. 1245.
Christian Archæology
That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments.
Christian Art
Also called ecclesiastical art.
Christian Brothers of Ireland
An institute founded at Waterford, Ireland, in 1802, by Edmund Ignatius Rice, a merchant of that city.
Christian Charity, Sisters of
Also called Daughters of the Immaculate Conception, an institute for teaching poor schools and for the care of the blind, founded at Paderborn, Germany, on August, 1849, by Pauline von Mallinckrodt (b. 3 June, 1817, at Minden, Westphalia; d. 30 April, 1881), sister to the famous Hermann von Mallinckrodt.
Christian Doctrine, Confraternity of
An association established at Rome in 1562 for the purpose of giving religions instruction.
Christian Instruction, Brothers of
A congregation founded in 1817 at Saint-Brieuc, Côtes-du-Nord, France, by Jean-Marie-Robert de la Mennais (b. 1780; d. 1860), for the instruction of youth.
Christian Knowledge, Society for Promoting
A society within the Church of England.
Christian Retreat, Congregation of
There are two branches of this congregation, the Fathers of Christian Retreat and the Sisters. It was founded on the 19th of November, 1789, at Fontenelle, Doubs, France, by Father Antoine-Silvestre Receveur, who was declared Venerable in 1883 by Pope Leo XIII.
Christianity
An account is given of Christianity as a religion, describing its origin, its relation to other religions, its essential nature and chief characteristics, but not dealing with its doctrines in detail nor its history as a visible organization.
Christina Alexandra
Queen of Sweden. Biographical article by P. Wittman.
Christine de Pisan
Biography, including a list of her major poetic and historical works.
Christine of Stommeln, Blessed
A visionary at a very early age, became a Beguine, d. 1312.
Christmas
Provides a detailed overview of the holiday from the fourth century through the modern age. Includes links to related topics.
Christopher Bales, Blessed
English priest, who was tortured and martyred less than three years after ordination. Also mentions fellow martyrs Nicholas Horner and Alexander Blake.
Christopher Buxton, Blessed
Priest who was martyred at Canterbury in 1588, together with Robert Wilcox and Edward Campion.
Christopher Numar of Forli
Minister General of the Friars Minor and cardinal. (d. 1528)
Christopher Robinson, Blessed
Wrote an account of the martyrdom of St. John Boste. Was himself martyred for being a priest, in 1598.
Christopher Wharton, Blessed
Biography of the English priest and martyr, who died in 1600.
Christopher, Pope
Reigned 903-904.
Christopher, Saint
Article on this martyr, probably of the third century. Although Christopher has been a center of popular legend since the sixth century, all that can be known for certain is that he was a great martyr.
Chrodegang, Saint
Bishop of Metz, d. 766.
Chromatius, Saint
Bishop of Aquileia, anti-Arian theologian, tried to reconcile Rufinus and Jerome, d. 406 or 407.
Chronicon Paschale
The name ordinarily given to a valuable Byzantine chronicle of the world written in the seventh century, so designated because, like many other chronicles of the Middle Ages, it follows a system of Christian chronology based on the paschal canon, or cycle.
Chronology, Biblical
Deals with the dates of the various events recorded in the Bible.
Chronology, General
Mathematical chronology determines the units to be employed in measuring time, and historical chronology which fixes in the general course of time the position of any particular occurrence, or, as it is generally termed, its date.
Chrysanthus and Daria, Saints
Martyrs at Rome, perhaps in 283 or 284.
Chrysogonus, Saint
Martyr at Aquileia, probably during the Diocletian persecution.
Chrysopolis
A titular see of Roman Arabia.
Chur
Comprises at present the Swiss Cantons of Graubünden (Grisons), Glarus, Zürich, Unterwalden, and Uri, as well as the little Principality of Lichtenstein.
Church Maintenance
The proper support of church edifices and church institutions.
Church, The
The term church is the name employed in the Teutonic languages to render the Greek ekklesia (ecclesia), the term by which the New Testament writers denote the society founded by Jesus Christ.
Churching of Women
A blessing given by the Church to mothers after recovery from childbirth.
Chusai
The Arachite, i.e. the native of Archi, a place south of the portion of Ephraim, near Bethel.
Chytri
A titular see of Cyprus.
Châlons-sur-Marne
The Diocese comprises the department of Marne, exclusive of the arrondissement of Reims.
Chézy, Antoine-Léonard
French Orientalist. (1773-1832)
Ciampini, Giovanni Giustino
Ecclesiastical archæologist. (1633-1698)
Ciasca, Agostino
Italian Augustinian and cardinal. (1835-1902)
Ciborium
A chalice-like vessel used to contain the Blessed Sacrament.
Cibot, Pierre-Martial
Missionary, born at Limoges, France, 14 August, 1727; died at Peking, China, 8 August, 1780.
Ciboule, Robert
French theologian and moralist. (d. 1458)
Cibyra
A titular see of Caria, in Asia Minor. Kibyra, later Kibyrrha, had been founded by the Lycian district inhabited by the Solymi.
Ciccione, Andrea
Fifteenth-century Italian sculptor and architect.
Cicognara, Leopoldo, Count
Politician, writer on art. (1767-1834)
Cid, El
Popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen.
Cidyessus
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Cienfuegos
The Diocese of Cienfuegos (Centumfocensis), includes all the Province of Santa Clara in the central part of Cuba.
Cignani Family
Carlo, Felice, and Paolo, Bolognese painters.
Cima da Conegliano, Giovanni Battista
Venetian painter. (1459-1517)
Cimabue, Cenni di Pepo
Florentine painter. (1240-1301)
Cimbebasia
The name given for a long time to the western part of Southern Africa.
Cincinnati
Archdiocese in the state of Ohio.
Cincture
More commonly called in England, the girdle is an article of liturgical attire which has been recognized as such since the ninth century.
Cinites
A tribe or family often mentioned in the Old Testament, personified as Qayin from which the nomen gentilicium Qeni is derived.
Cinna
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Circesium
A titular see of Osrhoene.
Circumcision
The Hebrew word, like the Greek (peritome), and the Latin (circumcisio), signifies a cutting and, specifically, the removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, from the penis.
Circumcision, Feast of the
As Christ wished to fulfil the law and to show His descent according to the flesh from Abraham. He, though not bound by the law, was circumcised on the eighth day (Luke, ii, 21), and received the sublime name expressive of His office, Jesus, i.e. Saviour.
Cisalpine Club
An association of Catholic laymen formed in England to perpetuate the movement which had found expression in the "Declaration and Protestation" signed by the Catholic body in 1789.
Cisamus
Titular see of Crete.
Cistercian Sisters
The first Cistercian monastery for women was established at Tart in the Diocese of Langres (now Dijon), in the year 1125, by sisters from the Benedictine monastery of Juilly, and with the co-operation of St. Stephen Harding, Abbot of Cîteaux.
Cistercians
Religious of the Order of Cîteaux, a Benedictine reform, established at Cîteaux in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme in the Diocese of Langres, for the purpose of restoring as far as possible the literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict.
Cistercians in the British Isles
St. Stephen Harding, third Abbot of Cîteaux (1109-33), was an Englishman and his influence in the early organization of the Cistercian Order had been very great. It was natural therefore that, when, after the coming of St. Bernard and his companions in 1113, foundations began to multiply, the project of sending a colony of monks to England should find favourable consideration.
Citation
A legal act through which a person, by mandate of the judge, is called before the tribunal for trial.
Citeaux, Abbey of
Founded in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme, in a deserted and uninhabited part of the Diocese of Châlons-sur Saône.
Citharizum
A titular see of Armenia.
Città della Pieve, Diocese of
A city of obscure origin in the province of Perugia in Umbria, Central Italy.
Città di Castello, Diocese of
A town in the province of Perugia, in Umbria, Central Italy.
Ciudad Real
Bishopric-Priorate of the Military Orders of Spain, directly subject to the Holy See.
Ciudad Rodrigo
Suffragan of the Diocese of Santiago; comprises the greater part of the province of Salamanca, and a portion of the province of Cáceres.
Cius
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Civil Allegiance
The duty of loyalty and obedience which a person owes to the State of which he is a citizen.
Civitavecchia and Corneto, Diocese of
An important and fortified Mediterranean seaport, in the province of Rome.
Cività Castellana, Orte, and Gallese
A town in the Province of Rome, on the Treia.
Clairvaux, Abbey of
The third daughter of Cîteaux and mother in the fourth line of numerous and celebrated monasteries, founded in 1115 by St. Bernard, in a deep valley upon the bank of the Aube, and known as the Vallée d'Absinthe.
Clandestinity (in Canon Law)
Strictly speaking, clandestinity signifies a matrimonial impediment introduced by the Council of Trent to invalidate marriages contracted at variance with the exigencies of the decree "Tametsi", commonly so called because the first word of the Latin text is tametsi.
Clare of Assisi, Saint
Cofounded the "Poor Clares" with St. Francis. She died in 1253.
Clare of Montefalco, Saint
Abbess, claimed by both the Franciscans and the Augustinians, d. 1308.
Clare of Rimini, Blessed
Widow, penitent, Poor Clare, superior of the convent at Rimini, contemplative, d. 1346.
Clark, William
English priest, date of birth unknown, executed at Winchester, 29 Nov., 1603.
Claude de la Colombière, Saint
Jesuit missionary, ascetical writer, spiritual director to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. He died in 1682.
Claudia
A Christian woman of Rome, whose greeting to Timothy St. Paul conveys with those of Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, "and all the brethren".
Claudianus Mamertus
Gallo-Roman theologian and the brother of St. Mamertus, Bishop of Vienne, d. about 473.
Claudiopolis
Titular see in Asia Minor.
Claudiopolis
A titular see of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
Clavigero, Francisco Saverio
Mexican Jesuit. (1731-1787)
Clavius, Christopher
Mathematician and astronomer. (1538-1612)
Clavius, Claudius
Danish cartographer. (b. 1388)
Clayton, James
Priest, confessor of the faith, b. at Sheffield, England, date of birth not know; d. a prisoner in Derby gaol, 22 July, 1588.
Clazomenae
Titular see of Asia Minor.
Clean and Unclean
The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral.
Cleef, Jan van
Flemish painter. (1646-1716)
Cleef, Joost van
Flemish painter. (1520-1556)
Cleef, Martin van
Flemish painter. (1520-1570)
Clemens non Papa
Composer. (d. 1558)
Clemens, Franz Jacob
German Catholic philosopher, b. 4 October, 1815, at Coblenz; d. 24 February, 1862, at Rome.
Clement I, Pope Saint
Lengthy article on Clement I, also called Clemens Romanus, the fourth pope and the first of the Apostolic Fathers.
Clement II, Pope
Reigned 1046-47.
Clement III, Pope
Reigned 1187-1191.
Clement IV, Pope
Reigned 1265-68.
Clement IX, Pope
Reigned 1667-1669.
Clement Mary Hofbauer, Blessed
Second founder of the Redemptorists, called "the Apostle of Vienna," d. 1821.
Clement of Alexandria, Saint
Fairly lengthy article on his life and writings.
Clement of Ireland, Saint
Also known as Clemens Scotus. Famed scholar and teacher of youth, died no earlier than 818.
Clement V, Pope
Reigned 1305-14.
Clement VI, Pope
Born 1291 in the castle of Maumont, departmentof Corrèze, France, elected pope, 7 May, 1342, at Avignon, where he died 6 December, 1352.
Clement VII, Pope
Reigned 1523-34.
Clement VIII, Pope
Reigned 1592-1605.
Clement X, Pope
Reigned 1670-1676.
Clement XI, Pope
Reigned 1700-1721.
Clement XII, Pope
Reigned 1730-1740.
Clement XIII, Pope
Reigned 1758-69.
Clement XIV, Pope
Reigned 1769-1774.
Clement, Cæsar
Date of birth uncertain; died at Brussels 28 Aug., 1626, great-nephew of Sir Thomas More's friend, Dr. John Clement.
Clement, John
President of the College of Physicians and tutor to St. Thomas More's children, born in Yorkshire about 1500; died 1 July, 1572.
Clementines
The name given to the religious romance in two forms as composed by Pope St. Clement I.
Clenock, Maurice
Date of birth unknown; died about 1580. He was b. in Wales and educated at Oxford, where he was admitted Bachelor of Canon Law in 1548.
Cleophas
According to the Catholic English versions the name of two persons mentioned in the New Testament. In Greek, however, the names are different, one being Cleopas, abbreviated form of Cleopatros, and the other Clopas.
Clerestory
A term formerly applied to any window or traceried opening in a church, e. g. in an aisle, tower, cloister, or screen, but now restricted to the windows in an aisled nave, or to the range of wall in which the high windows are set.
Cleric
A person who has been legitimately received into the ranks of the clergy.
Clericato, Giovanni
Canonist, born 1633, at Padua; died 1717.
Clericis Laicos
The initial words of a Bull issued 25 Feb., 1296, by Boniface VIII in response to an earnest appeal of the English and French prelates for protection against the intolerable exactions of the civil power.
Clerk, John
Bishop of Bath and Wells; date of birth unknown; died 3 January, 1541.
Clerke, Agnes Mary
Astronomer, born at Skibbereen, County Cork, Ireland, 10 February, 1842; died in London, 20 January 1907.
Clerke, Ellen Mary
Journalist and novelist, b. at Skibbereen, County Cork, Ireland, 1840; d. in London, 2 March 1906.
Clerks Regular
Those bodies of men in the Church who by the very nature of their institute unite the perfection of the religious state to the priestly office, i.e. who while being essentially clerics, devoted to the exercise of the ministry in preaching, the administration of the sacraments, the education of youth, and other spiritual and corporal works of mercy, are at the same time religious in the strictest sense of the word, professing solemn vows, and living a community life according to a rule solemnly approved of by the sovereign pontiff.
Clerks Regular of Our Saviour
A religious congregation instituted in its present form in 1851, at Benoite-Vaux in the Diocese of Verdun, France.
Clerks Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca
A congregation founded by St. Giovanni Leonardi.
Clermont
Comprises the entire department of Puy-de-Dôme and is a suffragan of Bourges.
Cletus, Pope Saint
Says that "Cletus" is only another form of "Anacletus," briefly explains how the error of thinking the two names are two different popes came about, says that Cletus died in about 88.
Cleveland
The Diocese, established 23 April, 1847, comprises all that part of Ohio lying north of the southern limits of the Counties of Columbiana, Stark, Wayne, Ashland, Richland, Crawford, Wyandot, Hancock, Allen, and Van Wert, its territory covering thirty-six counties.
Clichtove, Josse
Theologian. (1472-1543)
Clifford, William
English Divine. (d. 1670)
Clifton
Diocese of England, consisting of Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, and Wiltshire.
Climent, José
Spanish bishop, b. at Castellon de la Plana (Valencia), 1706; d. there 25 Nov., 1781.
Clogher
A suffragan of Armagh, Ireland, which comprises the County Monaghan, almost the whole of Fermanagh, the southern portion of Tyrone, and parts of Donegal, Louth, and Cavan.
Cloister
The English equivalent of the Latin word clausura (from claudere, "to shut up").
Clonard, School of
Situated on the river Boyne. Founded by St. Finnian, an abbot and great wonder-worker.
Clonfert
The Diocese, a suffragan see of the metropolitan province of Tuam, was founded in 557 by St. Brendan the Navigator.
Clonmacnoise, Abbey and School of
Situated on the Shannon, about half way between Athlone and Banagher, King's County, Ireland.
Clotilda, Saint
Queen of the Franks, wife of King Clovis I and grandmother of St. Cloud. Devoted to St. Martin of Tours and instrumental in the conversion of the Franks, she died in 545.
Clouet
The family name of several generations of painters.
Clovesho, Councils of
Notable as the place at which were held several councils of the Anglo-Saxon Church.
Clovio, Giorgio
Italian miniaturist, called by Vasari "the unique" and "little Michelangelo", b. at Grizani, on the coast of Croatia, in 1498; d. at Rome, 1578.
Clovis
King of the Salic Franks. (466-511)
Cloyne, Diocese of
Comprises the northern half of County Cork.
Cluny, Congregation of
The earliest reform, which became practically a distinct order, within the Benedictine family.
Clynn, John
Irish Franciscan and annalist, b. about 1300; d., probably, in 1349.
Clémanges, Mathieu-Nicolas Poillevillain de
French Humanist and theologian, b. in Champagne about 1360; d. at Paris between 1434 and 1440.
Clémencet, Charles
Benedictine historian, b. at Painblanc, in the department of Côte-d'Or, France, 1703; d. at Paris, 5 August, 1778.
Clément, François
A member of the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur and historian; born at Bèze in the department of Côte-d'Or, France, 1714; died at Paris, 29 March, 1793.
Co-Consecrators
The bishops who assist the presiding bishop in the act of consecrating a new bishop.
Co-education
The term is now generally reserved to the practice of educating the sexes together; but even in this sense it has a variety of meanings.
Cobo, Bernabé
Spanish Jesuit missionary. (1582-1657)
Coccaleo, Viatora
A Capuchin friar, so called from his birthplace, Coccaglio in Lombardy, date of birth unknown; d. 1793.
Cochabamba
The city from which this diocese takes its name is the capital of the department of Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Cochem, Martin of
German theologian, preacher and ascetic writer, born at Cochem, a small town on the Moselle, in 1630; died in the convent at Waghäusel, 10 September, 1712.
Cochin, Diocese of
Erected and constituted a suffragan of the Diocese of Goa, of which it had previously formed a part, by the Bull "Pro excellenti praeeminentia" of Paul IV, 4 February, 1558.
Cochin, Jacques-Denis
Preacher and philanthropist. (1726-1783)
Cochin, Pierre-Suzanne-Augustin
Author of religious, pedagogical, and sociological works. (1823-1872)
Cochlaeus, Johann
Humanist and Catholic controversialist, b. 1479; d. 11 Jan., 1552, in Breslau.
Cocussus
A titular see of Armenia.
Codex
The name given to a manuscript in leaf form, distinguishing it from a roll.
Codex Alexandrinus
Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from Alexandria and had been the property of the patriarch of that see.
Codex Amiatinus
Manuscript of the Latin Vulgate Bible, kept at Florence in the Bibliotheca Laurentiana.
Codex Bezae
Greek, New Testament manuscript.
Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus
The last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, received its name from the treatises of St. Ephraem the Syrian (translated into Greek) which were written over the original text.
Codex Sinaiticus
A Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, of the greatest antiquity and value; found on Mount Sinai, in St. Catherine's Monastery, by Constantine Tischendorf.
Codex Vaticanus
A quarto volume written in uncial letters of the fourth century.
Codrington, Thomas
Catholic divine, chiefly known for his attempt to introduce into England the "Institute of Secular Priests Living in Community", founded in Bavaria by Bartholomaus Holzhauser.
Coeffeteau, Nicolas
Preacher and controversialist, born 1574, at Château-du-Loir, province of Maine, France; died Paris, 21 April, 1623.
Coelchu
Abbot of the School of Clonmacnoise in Ireland, who flourished during the latter half of the eighth century.
Coelde, Theodore
Friar Minor and missionary, born at Münster, in 1435; died at Louvain, 11 December, 1515.
Coenred
King of Mercia (reigned 704-709); date of birth and death unknown.
Coeur d'Alêne Indians
A small tribe of Salishan stock formerly ranging along the lake and river of the same name in northern Idaho.
Coffin, Edward
English Jesuit and missionary. (1570-1626)
Coffin, Robert Aston
Ecclesiastical writer and bishop. (1819-1885)
Cogitosus
Sixth-century Irish monk and author.
Cogolludo, Diego López de
Seventeenth-century Mexican historian.
Cohen, Hermann
A Discalced Carmelite (Augustin-Marie of the Blessed Sacrament, generally known as Father Hermann), born at Hamburg, Germany, 10 November, 1820; died at Spandau, 20 January, 1871.
Coimbatore, Diocese of
Includes the Collectorate of Coimbatore (except the Taluk of the Collegal), the Nilgiris with the south-eastern Wynaad, the Taluks of Palgat, Collancodoo, Tamalpuram, and part of Wallavanad, the Chittur Taluks, and the Nelliampathy Hills in the Cochin territory.
Coimbra, Diocese of
Located in Portugal.
Coimbra, University of
University in Portugal.
Colbert, Jean-Baptiste
Marquis de Seignelay, statesman, b. at Rheims, France, 1619; d. at Paris, 1683.
Cole, Henry
English confessor. (1500-1579)
Coleman, Edward
Controversialist, politician, and secretary of the Duchess of York. (d. 1678)
Coleridge, Henry James
Writer and preacher. (1822-1893)
Colet, John
Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral and founder of St. Paul's School, London; b. in London, 1467; d. there 18 Sept., 1519.
Coleti, Nicola
Priest and historian, b. at Venice, 1680; d. in the same city, 1765.
Colette, Saint
Founder of the Colettine Poor Clares (Clarisses), d. 1447.
Colgan, John
Hagiographer and historian, b. in County Donegal, Ireland, about the beginning of the seventeenth century; d. probably in 1657.
Colima
The city of Colima, the capital of the state of the same name in Mexico, is situated on the Colima River, at an altitude of 1400 feet, and was founded in the year 1522 by Gonzalo de Sandoval.
Colin, Frédéric-Louis
Superior of the Sulpicians in Canada, b. at Bourges, France, in 1835; d. at Montreal, 27 November, 1902.
Colin, Jean-Claude-Marie
French priest, founder of the Marists. (1790-1875)
Coliseum, The
Known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, commenced A.D. 72 by Vespasian, the first of the Flavian emperors, dedicated by Titus A.D. 80.
Collado, Diego
Sixteenth-century Spanish missionary.
Colle de Val d'Elsa
Diocese in Italy.
Collect
The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at Lauds, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers.
Collectarium
The book which contains the Collects.
Collections
Article discussing the development which took the form of a contribution in money, corresponding particularly to what is conveyed by the French word quête.
Collectivism
The term is sometimes employed as a substitute for socialism.
College
The word college, from the Latin collegium, originally signified a community, a corporation, an organized society, a body of colleagues, or a society of persons engaged in some common pursuit.
College (in Canon Law)
A collection of persons united together for a common object so as to form one body.
College, Apostolic
This term designates The Twelve Apostles as the body of men commissioned by Christ to spread the kingdom of God over the whole world and to give it the stability of a well-ordered society.
Collegiate
An adjective applied to those churches and institutions whose members form a college.
Collège de France, The
Founded in the interest of higher education by Francis I.
Colman Mac Lenine, Saint
Founder and patron saint of the Diocese of Cloyne, poet, d. 601.
Colman, Saint
Monk of Iona, bishop of Lindisfarne, later founded the Abbey and Diocese of Mayo, d. 676.
Colman, Saint
First bishop and patron saint of Dromore. Born in Dalaradia c. 450, date of death uncertain.
Colman, Saint
Hermit, monastic founder, bishop of Kilmacduagh, d. 632.
Colman, Saint
Abbot, d. about 595. This St. Colman was a contemporary of St. Aidan, and is sometimes confused with a later saint of the same name, Colman of Kilmacduagh.
Colman, Saint
Irishman martyred while on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, near Vienna in 1012.
Colman, Saint Elo
Nephew of St. Columba. This St. Colman was the first abbot of Muckamore. He died at Lynally (Lann Elo) in 611.
Colman, Saint MacCathbad
Bishop of Kilroot and a contemporary of St. Ailbe.
Colman, Walter
Friar Minor and English martyr: date of birth uncertain; died in London, 1645.
Colmar, Joseph Ludwig
Bishop of Mainz; born at Strasburg, 22 June, 1760; died at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1818.
Cologne
German city and archbishopric.
Cologne, University of
Near the end of the fourteenth century Urban VI, at the instance of the Town Council, issued (21 May, 1388) the Bull of foundation.
Colomba of Rieti, Blessed
Third Order Dominican, intensely devoted to the Eucharist, d. 1501.
Colombia
Forms the north-west corner of the South American Continent.
Colombo
The Archdiocese of Colombo, situated on the western seaboard of the Island of Ceylon, includes two of the nine provinces into which the island is divided, viz. the Western and the Northwestern.
Colombo, Mateo Realdo
Italian anatomist and discoverer of the pulmonary circulation, b. at Cremona in 1516; d. at Rome, 1559.
Colonia
A titular see of Armenia.
Colonia
A titular see in Armenia Prima.
Colonna
A celebrated family which played an important role in Italy during medieval and Renaissance times.
Colonna, Egidio
A Scholastic philosopher and theologian, b. about the middle of the thirteenth century, probably 1247, in Rome.
Colonna, Giovanni Paolo
Noted church composer of the seventeenth century.
Colonna, Vittorio
Italian poet, born at Marino, 1490; died at Rome, February 25, 1547.
Colonnade
A number of columns symmetrically arranged in one or more rows.
Colophon
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Colorado
The thirty-fifth, in point of admission, of the United States of America.
Colossians, Epistle to the
One of the four Captivity Epistles written by St. Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome.
Colossæ
A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, suppressed in 1894.
Colours, Liturgical
The Church directs that the vestments worn by ministers, and the drapery used in the decoration of the altar should correspond in colour to that which is prescribed for the Office of the day.
Columba (of Spain), Saint
A nun beheaded by the Muslims in 853.
Columba of Sens, Saint
Woman martyred towards the end of the third century.
Columba of Terryglass, Saint
A disciple of St. Finnian of Clonard, and himself taught St. Fintan. This St. Columba founded the monastery of Tirdaglas, and died of the plague in 552.
Columba, Saint
Also known as Columcille. Long article on the Irish-born monk, founder and abbot of Iona. He died in 597.
Columbanus, Saint
Irish-born abbot of Luxeuil and Bobbio, author of a monastic rule and of a penitential, d. 615. Biography.
Columbia University (Oregon)
Formerly known as Portland University, located on the east bank of the Willamette River in northern Portland, and is conducted by the Congregation of Holy Cross, whose mother-house is at Notre Dame, Indiana.
Columbus, Christopher
Lengthy biographical article on the explorer.
Columbus, Diocese of
This portion of the State belonged originally to the Diocese of Cincinnati, and was recommended to Rome for erection as a see by the Fathers of the Second Plenary Council, of Baltimore, held in 1866.
Column
Architectural term for a supporting pillar.
Comacchio
Diocese; suffragan of Ravenna.
Comana
A titular see of Asia Minor.
Comayagua
The Diocese of Comayagua, suffragan to Guatemala, includes the entire Republic of Honduras in Central America.
Combefis, François
Patrologist, b. November, 1605, at Marmande in Guyenne; d. at Paris, 23 March, 1679.