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Description of the philosophical institution founded by Plato, which advocated skepticism in succeeding generations.
The capacities of impulse and desire which lead to or determine human action, as described by 18th and 19th century Scottish common sense philosophy.
Biography of the 1st century philosopher who defended the ten tropes of skepticism.
Greek philosopher born about 500 BCE, responsible for giving philosophy a home at Athens and the first philosopher to introduce a spiritual principle which gives matter life and form.
4th century BCE philosopher of Abdera, from the school of Democritus.
Greek philosopher of Miletus, born 611 BCE who thought it unnecessary to fix upon air, water, or fire as the original and primary form of body.
5th century BCE Greek philosopher of Miletus who regarded 'air' as the primary form of body.
Animals and Ethics
Consideration of moral status of non-human animals.
11th century English prelate who developed views of atonement and satisfaction which are still held by orthodox theologians.
Athenian philosopher and founder of the Cynic sect who was born around 440 BCE.
The life and work of the major figure in scholastic philosophy.
Description of the life and teachings of the philosopher Aristippus, founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy.
The life and work of the 4th century BCE Greek philosopher.
Extensive article on the life and work of the 4th century ecclesiastical author.
16th century philosopher and politician.
School of Russian thought centered on the work of Bakhtin which focused on questions of signification in artistic creation.
18th century aristocrat whose work 'On Crimes and Punishments (1764)' inspired reform in the Italian criminal justice system.
Theory in philosophy of mind which maintains that talk of mental events should be translated into talk about observable behavior.
Extensive article on the 18th century 'founder' of utilitarianism.
Influential 18th century Irish philosopher.
Bolingbroke, Henry St. John
18th century Tory disciple of Locke.
18th century icon of a highly intellectualized theology.
Nineteenth century Scottish philosopher who was one of the key figures of the idealist movement that dominated British philosophy from 1870 until the mid 1920s.
Extensive article about his life and work, by Mauro Murzi.
Chinese Room Argument
John Searle's thought experiment is one of the best known counters to claims of artificial intelligence.
Prolific stoic of Soli, and disciple of Cleanthes.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius
1st century BCE Roman orator and philosopher of the New Academy.
Stoic philosopher of Assus in Lydia, disciple of Zeno of Citium.
17th century 'Cambridge Platonist' who fought for preservation of religious ideals, including divine illumination.
17th century critic of Hobbes and the neo-Platonists.
Description of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy, which flourished from the 5th-3rd centuries BCE. The Cyrenaics were skeptics and hedonists.
5th century BCE Pythagorean philosopher of Syracuse.
Introduction to one of the most significant philosophers concerned with philosophy of mind and action of the 20th/21st century.
Explores the deism of Hobbes, Locke, Tindal, and the influence of Hume.
The deism of Voltaire and Rousseau.
4th century BCE philosopher of Abdera who expanded the atomic theory of Leucippus.
Philosopher of the second century CE. who tried to revive the philosophy of the Cynic School.
Early modern philosopher who rejected religious authority in the quest for scientific and philosophical knowledge.
Leading light of the 20th century American school of thought known as pragmatism.
The most prominent of the French Encyclopedists and one of the leaders of the Enlightenment.
3rd century biographer of ancient Greek philosophers.
Diogenes of Sinope
4th cn. BCE cynic philosopher of Sinope.
13th century Dominican mystic who was almost forgotten until Franz von Baader revived his memory in the nineteenth century.
Group of ancient philosophers who sought to reach by selection the highest degree of probability in the search for truth.
Egoism, Psychological and Ethical
Maintains that the individual self is the motivating moral force and the end of moral action.
The theory that all derived or secondary things flow from the primary.
5th century BCE philosopher who combined medical study with Orphic mysticism.
Group of French philosophers and men of letters who collaborated in the production of the famous Encyclopedie.
Eminent Stoic philosopher, born as a slave at Hieropolis in Phyrgia in 55 CE.
4th century BCE materialist, empiricist, and hedonist. One of the major philosophers of the Hellenistic period.
4th century BCE native of Megara, and founder of the Megarian or Eristic sect.
Introduces evolution through the ages, from the ancient Greeks, through Leibniz and Descartes to Darwin and Spencer.
Ferrier, James Frederick
The earliest absolute idealist in English philosophy.
Fichte, Immanuel Hermann
Aimed to secure a philosophical basis for the personality of God.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
One of the major figures in German philosophy in the period between Kant and Hegel.
Lenghty article on the father of psychoanalysis who is generally recognised as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century.
The German reaction to empiricism, including related theories of Kant, Fichte, Hegel and others.
God, Western Concepts of
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy article on God from Socrates to Nietzsche.
Greek sophist and rhetorician, known as "the Nihilist," born in 483 BCE.
The philosophical currents of Ancient Greek philosophy are introduced, from the Presocratic philosophers through to Proclus.
19th century exponent of the Scottish common-sense philosophy.
Hartmann, Karl Robert Eduard Von
19th century German philosopher who attempted to combine the idea of Hegel with the will of Schopenhauer in 'spiritual monism.'
Hegelians, St. Louis
19th century group of amateur American philosophers founded and led by William Torrey Harris.
Helvetius, Claude Adrien
One of the 18th century Encyclopedists who held the skeptical and materialistic views common to that school of philosophy.
Hempel, Carl Gustav
A leading member of logical positivism, the German philosopher died in 1997.
5th century BCE. Presocratic Greek philosopher.
Herbert of Cherbury, Edward
17th century historian, poet (brother of George), and philosopher. Sought to determine the nature and standard of truth, and conditions of knowledge. Precursor of the philosophy of Common Sense.
Hippias was a sophist, a contemporary of Socrates, and an enthusiast for universality.
17th century British philosopher. Author of Leviathan (1651).
Follower of Kant, founder of the Aristotelian Society.
Brief article on Erasmus and the Italian humanist movement.
Leader of the German phenomenological movement.
Huxley, Thomas Henry
19th century zoologist and advocate of Darwinism.
Hölderlin, Johann Christian Friedrich
Examines the poet's role in the development of German Idealism.
Form of monistic materialism which maintains that mental states and brain activities are identical.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Free online encyclopedia. Edited by James Fieser and Bradley Dowden, hosted by the University of Tennessee at Martin.
Examines the nature and justifications of interfering with another polity or choices made by individuals.
Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich
18th century German philosopher, famous for effective criticism of Kant.
Just War Theory
Some of those who have attempted to justify war include Aquinas, Grotius, and Pufendorf.
5th century BCE founder of atomism.
Article on the life and work of the influential philosopher.
French scholastic theologian of the 12th century, influenced by Abelard.
Lotze, Rudolf Hermann
19th century German philosopher who criticised the pantheism of Hegel.
Roman poet and advocate of Epicurean philosophy.
Third century BCE Greek philosopher and satirist.
Mill, John Stuart
19th leader and prophet of utilitarianism, heir to the Hume-Bentham line, and influential force in modern political theory. Author of On Liberty (1859), and Utilitarianism (1863).
Andrew Latus, St. Francis Xavier University, summarizes the discussion between Thomas Nagel and Bernard Williams on the question: Can luck ever make a moral difference?
Introduction to ethics, with links to other articles at the IEP.
Standards that govern human behavior objectively derived from the nature of human beings.
Used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to describe knowledge of God drawn from nature.
The revival of Greek philosophy in 3rd century BCE, led by Plotinus and his disciple, Porphyry. Influenced by both Pythagoras and Plato.
Ockham, William of
Detailed biography of the 14th century Franciscan.
18th century British theologian.
Greek philosopher and poet.
Brief history of the Peripatetic doctrines.
Biography and description of the philosophy of Plato.
3rd century CE founder of Neo-Platonism.
Poincaré, Jules Henri
19th century French philosopher of science.
Theory that law is manufactured according to certain social conventions.
5th century BCE sophist, possibly a mentor of Socrates
Early Greek sophist.
4th century BCE founder of the Greek school of skepticism.
The 6th century BCE philosopher.
Leading German philosopher of science, and logical positivist.
Brief article on the transition between Middle Ages and modernity.
A treatment of the origins and development of the theory of human rights, with philosophical analysis, justifications, and criticisms.
Short introduction to Roman philosophy from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Rousseau, Jean Jacques
18th century French author of the Social Contract, influential during the French Revolution.
Examines self-referential linguistics used to describe properties and sets.
Shaftesbury, Earl of
Patron of John Locke
Leading proponent of Russian transcendental phenomenology.
Skepticism, Ancient Greek
A description of skepticism in Ancient Greece, led by Pyrrho.
Introduction to the current discussion of skepticism.
Social Contract Theory
View that morality is based on social agreements that serve the interests of those who make the agreement.
The doctrine of the solipsist is that existence means my existence and that of my mental states.
19th century Russian philosopher.
Teachers of philosophy in Ancient Greece, including Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus and Hippias.
17th century pantheist, critic of Descartes.
19th century British academic.
4th century BCE member of the Megarean school.
Stirling, James Hutchison
19th century British Idealist, Hegelian academic.
Stoic Philosophy of Mind
Description of the philosophy of Mind of the Stoics, including the relationship between mind and body, perception, action-theory, and emotion.
Description of the system of ethics, popular in Ancient Greece, which has physics as its foundation.
Drinking-parties in Ancient Greece where the guests reclined on couches, and were crowned with garlands of flowers.
Scholastic philosophy describes this as the principle in moral consciousness which directs an agent to good.
Detailed biographical essay on the Ancient Greek philosopher.
Philosopher of the Peripatetic school, successor to Aristotle at the Lyceum.
Long article about questions of time discussed throughout the history of philosophy.
3rd century BCE disciple of Pyrrho.
Philosophical theories on the nature of truth, by Bradley Dowden and Norman Swartz.
Organised the development of logical positivism in the 1920s. Included Carnap, Feigl, Frank, Gödel, Hahn, Kraft, Neurath, Waismann. Popper and Wittgenstein also had association with the Vienna Circle.
View that morality is the development of or virtues.
Theory that God or the ultimate nature of reality is conceived as some form of will.
18th century Church of England bishop, and critic of the Deists.
Detailed essay on the life and work of the 20th century philosopher.
Pupil of Socrates, who contributed to the record of his life.
Last update:January 12, 2015 at 11:51:08 UTC