Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889–1975) was a British historian. His most famous work, A Study of History, was published in twelve volumes between 1934 and 1961 and traces the development of about two dozen civilizations. In it, Toynbee famously posits world history as a succession of civilizations rather than states, that these civilizations pass through stages of development, and that the demise of civilizations owes to moral or religious failures rather than external ones.
Guardian: A Study of History by Arnold Toynbee
From the archives: A Study of History by Arnold Toynbee, reviewed in the Guardian, June 26, 1934.
Malaspina Great Books: Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975)
A brief biography by Richard Ganski.
Wikipedia: Arnold J. Toynbee
A biography and photograph of the British historian (1889–1975) from the collaborative encyclopedia.
Last update:July 31, 2013 at 11:58:41 UTC