Melungeons are a group of mixed race people who have lived in Appalachia for at least 200 years and probably longer. They are thought to be a mix of Native American, African, Mediterranean and North European. There are Melungeons and their descendants all over the region, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, eastern Kentucky and northern North Carolina. There are at least three groups that the name has been applied to, the first use of the name was for the Newman's Ridge group centered on Hancock and Hawkins Counties, TN, and Scott and Wise Counties, VA, then the Graysville Melungeons, between Knoxville and Chattanooga, and then the Kentucky Melungeons, in southeastern Kentucky. The term has also been used for the Redbones or Louisiana Melungeons, along the Texas-Louisiana border, and the Dead Lake People or Florida Melungeons in the Florida Panhandle. There is a lot of research, speculation and discussion on the origin of the Melungeons.

Melungeon was a derogatory term not used by the Melungeons themselves until very recently. Other terms used for them include "Black Dutch", "Black Irish", "Ramps", and "Goins". Goins is the most common surname in the group (also spelt Goens, Goings, Goines, Going, Goin, etc.).

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American Indian Melungeon
Book on American Indians and the origin of the Melungeons, by Karlton Douglas.
Black Dutch and Irish, Melungeons, Moravians, Pennsylvania Dutch
Shirley Hornbeck's genealogy tips on the Black Dutch, how the term has been used, for Melungeons and other groups.
Black Dutch Yahoo Group
A discussion group for anyone interested in people described as Black Dutch or Black German.
The Black Irish Myth
A theory as to why people of Irish descent like to lay claim to Spanish blood from the Armada. Links the Black Irish to the Melungeons. By Tom Kunesh.
Documenting the Melungeons One Page at a Time
A Melungeon group especially interested in the Hancock County people.
First Union: The Melungeons Revisited
Blue Ridge Country Magazine article on Melungoens, First Union and Brent Kennedy.
Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland, and Delaware
Family history of most families who were free in this region during the colonial period. Includes extracts from government records.
Gowen Research Foundation
Information on families with the name Gowen, including variations. This includes the most common Melungeon name, Goins, Goin, Goings, Going, and others. Search the newsletters.
Graysville Melungeons
An article on the largest Melungeon community, in Rhea, Roane and Hamilton counties, Tennessee, and the only incorporated town with a Melungeon majority.
Jack Goins' Melungeon and Appalachian Research
Dedicated to research on the northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia Melungeon communities. Includes information on DNA research as well as information about his book.
Melungeon Family Genealogy Forum
Discussion of genealogical topics about Melungeon families.
Melungeon Heritage Association
Established to document and preserve the cultural legacy of mixed-ancestry peoples in the southern Appalachians. Articles, links, and information about periodic Melungeon conventions known as "unions".
The Melungeon Historical Society
Society dedicated to research on Melungeon history.
Melungeon Mailing List
Discussion group for genealogy and history. Includes searchable archive of past messages.
Melungeon Mystery Solved?
2012 article from Blue Ridge Country magazine.
Melungeon Origin Group
Discussion group on Melungeon origins and history.
The Melungeon Reemergence in Southern Appalachia
Jason Adam's paper on the Melungeon struggle for self determination.
Melungeon Resource Page
Includes a FAQ about the mixed Mediterranean-Indian heritage of Melungeons, genealogy links, and information on the Melungeon mailing list. By Martha Short
Melungeon Voices
Announcement for a new film about Melungeons.
The Melungeons
Short article about Melungeons, particularly in Virginia.
Melungeons | Google Group
Discussion group on Melungeon genealogy and history.
The Melungeons: A New Journey Home
An article in Blue Ridge Country on the Melungeons of Vardy, with photos of the church and school.
The Melungeons: An Untold Story of Ethnic cleansing in America (by Brent Kennedy)
This is an excerpt or introduction to the most famous and controversial book on the Melungeons.
The Melungeons: My Perspective
By Brenda Nichols. Histories of her family and some notable Melungeons such as Mahala Mullins.
Muslims in the Americas Before Columbus
Some evidence for Moorish and Mandingo presence, which some people believe to be part of the ancestry of Melungeons.
Native American Muslims
An article about early contact between Native Americans and Muslims, which contends many Native Americans adopted Islam. This may tie in with the better known Masonic movement among Native Americans.
Under One Sky
Bill Fields' personal web site including the archives of Under One Sky, newsletter of the Southeastern Kentucky Melungeon Information Exchange. Information on Melungeon Heritage.
Vardy Community Historical Society
This society is trying to preserve the Vardy Melungeon site on Blackwater Creek in Hancock County, TN. Museum in the old Melungeon school. Mahala Mullins' cabin brought to the site from Newman's ridge.
Walking Toward the Sunset: The Melungeons of Appalachia
Wayne Winkler's book with much of the text given in the preview.
Wayfaring Stranger
The Black Dutch, German Gypsies, or Chicanere, and their relation to the Melungeons, by Linda D. Griggs.
What Is A Melungeon?
History and description of several groups known as Melungeon.
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Last update:
August 31, 2016 at 5:24:08 UTC
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