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BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation) Homepage
- "A new form of matter at the coldest temperatures in the universe." Simplified, surprisingly clear explanation. Includes cartoon illustrations.
Below Absolute Zero -- What Does Negative Temperature Mean?
- Can you really make a system which has a temperature below absolute zero? From the Usenet Physics FAQ.
Bose Einstein Condensation at NIST
- Several research groups in the Physics Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are working on different aspects of BEC and the physics of ultracold quantum gases.
- A developer and supplier of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) and cold atom devices, instruments and systems.
NIST - Atomic Physics Division - Laser Cooling and Trapping Group
- This department of the National Institute of Standards and Technology studies the physics of laser cooling, electromagnetic trapping, and other radiative manipulation of neutral atoms and dielectric particles. Home of 1997 Nobel Prize winner William D. Phillips, whose team has cooled atoms to less than a millionth of a degree above absolute zero.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
- This includes the press release of the Nobel Committee for the prize given to Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William D. Phillips, for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. For those wanting more scientific details, be sure to click the link for "Additional background material" under "Further Reading."
Research Groups Involved in Atom Trapping and Cooling
- A detailed links list of about 50 research groups around the world, with an immense list of subject links, as well. From the Laser Physics Group at Umeå University, Sweden.
What is Absolute Zero?
- An answer from the Lansing State Journal in Michigan, January 29, 1992.
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