This category includes all aspects of Cryogenics: the production and study of extreme sub-zero temperatures. This includes the production, use, and storage of liquid gases (nitrogen, oxygen, helium), mechanical freezers for those temperatures, and the attempts to reach absolute zero. It also includes a recent use of cryogenic technology in which metals are dipped in liquid nitrogen to improve various qualities.
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A good general discussion of the physics and concept of "temperature."
Advanced Cryogenics Ltd.
Consultants on carbon dioxide (CO2) production, sales, recovery, natural CO2 well sources, and emerging technologies which yield a CO2 by-product, such as fuel cells. In Tavernier, Florida.
Allied Pipefreezing Services
National and international pipefreezing service to all sectors of industry. In North West England. Very informative page.
Bishop Pipefreezing Inc.
Supplying pipefreezing and cryogenic services to the pipeline and process industries throughout the world. Pipefreezing is a means of isolating part of a pipework system by freezing the pipe contents over a short section, so that the contents form a solid plug. Offices in the UK and U.S.A
British Cryoengineering Society
Scientific society which promotes the advancement of cryogenics and cryoengineering in the UK and abroad. Publisher of Cryogenics Safety Manual and Cryogenics Fluids Databook.
Climatic Services Ltd.
Environmental simulation equipment for sale or hire. In-house climatic testing from -80C to 300C, and temperature and humidity calibration. At Glenrothes in Fife, Scotland, UK.
On-line version of magazine which reports the latest advances in technology, market development and new products for industrial, medical and specialty gases and cryogenic equipment.
Cryogenic Consulting Service, Inc.
CCSI performs consulting, design, and plant operations for industrial cryogenic processes and gas purification and liquefaction. Areas of expertise include plant design and upgrading, natural gas, hydrogen, and cryogenic storage. In Weston, Connecticut.
International journal of low temperature engineering including applied superconductivity, cryoelectronics, cryophysics, cryogenics in medicine, and refrigeration and liquefaction technology. Mostly a subscription/information site.
Inventory management software for biological, clinical and IVF samples and specimen.
Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research
Part of the Polish Academy of Sciences, in Wroclaw, Poland. Includes information about the departments of superconductivity, and low temperatures.
Issues in Cryogenics
A site on cryogenics containing papers published by Professor Traugott H.K. Frederking.
Issues in Cryogenics by Dr. Sidney Yuan
Detailed explanations and papers on various aspects of cryogenic technology, including mechanical cooling, oxygen contamination, cryogenic systems, and helium superfluidity. Many papers available for downloading.
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
Design and manufacture of cryogenic temperature sensors and instrumentation, including instrumentation and systems for studying magnetic properties of materials. Products include gaussmeters, Hall probes, vibrating sample magnetometers, and electromagnets. In Westerville, Ohio, with distributors world wide.
Low Temperature Science: What Remains for the Physicist?
An article by Robert C. Richardson of Cornell University, written in 1981.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
Awarded to David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, and Robert C. Richardson. The press release contains a good (technical) discussion of the superfluidity of helium-3.
The Original Paper: Osheroff, Richardson, and Lee
The paper announcing the discovery of superfluid Helium 3, the basis for the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Pipefreezing and Hot Tapping Ltd
UK freeze isolation specialists. In situ valve replacement or other pipeline repairs and modifications without needing to drain down systems. In London.
Princeton CryoTech Inc.
Cryogenic engineering firm using vacuum jacketed piping systems for liquid nitrogen. Articles on cryogenic function, liquid nitrogen pipe systems, cryobiology sample viability and preventative maintenance of liquid nitrogen equipment.
Sumitomo Cryogenics Group
Manufacturer of cryopumps, cryocooolers, pulse tubes, shield coolers and laboratory cryostats
A detailed education site on thermal science (both cold and hot), with many explanations, conversion tables, databases, links, and an excellent FAQ/glossary of terms and concepts dealing with temperature.
Last update:August 28, 2016 at 1:35:11 UTC