Lichens are fungi which form a symbiotic partnership with either green algae (Chlorophycophyta) or blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria). Most of the lichenised fungi are from the phylum Ascomycota but some are from the phylum Basidiomycota.

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British Soldier Lichen
Student project on Cladonia cristatella with classification, habitat, phylogenetics and environmental interactions.
Catalog of California Lichens
1575 species have been identified from this state, the great geographic diversity being responsible for the relatively large number of lichens found.
Cladina: Reindeer Lichens
Information and photographs of Cladina mitis, C. rangiferina and C. stellaris, their description, habitat and other notes.
Cladonia cristatella
Article by Tom Volk on the British soldier lichen, where the fungal element is associated with the green alga, Trebouxia erici.
Cladonia rangifera
Article by Tom Volk on this lichen, often known as Reindeer Moss, and on lichens in general.
Cladonia: Club Lichens and Cup Lichens
Photographs and information on these lichens, their description, habitat and other notes.
Cryptothecia rubrocincta, the Christmas Lichen
Photographs and article by Tom Volk on this spectacular lichen which can be found in the tropical regions of the Americas.
The Earthlife Web Lichen Image Directory
About 40 images of lichens, including some unidentified ones.
FIA Lichen Indicator
The Forest Inventory and Analysis service in the United States monitors the lichen community in order to assess the impact of air pollution on forest health.
Growth and Development in Lichens
Each species of lichen has its own preferred substrate. This article describes how and where they grow and the extremes of climate that they can tolerate.
Introduction to Lichens
A lichen is a combination of two organisms which live together intimately. Information on their fossil record, life history and ecology, systematics and morphology.
Provides a global information system for lichenized and non-lichenized ascomycetes.
Lichen Determination Keys Available on the Internet
Provides links to keys providing details of the lichens that can be found in many countries throughout the world.
A Lichen in Close-up
Images of a lichen at three different magnifications, the most detailed showing the algal and fungal components.
Lichen Pictures
Photographs of Acolium hawaiiense, Acroscyphus sphaerophoroides, Anaptychia leucomelos, Bacidia medialis, Bryoria furcellata, B. smithii, Buellia aeruginascens, B. proximata, B. pruinosa, B. tincta, Caloplaca erythrantha and Teloschistes flavicans.
An illustrated introduction to the lichens with information on their ecology and reproduction.
Lichens of North America
Details of the book of this name, and an interesting introduction to the biology of lichens and their relationships with man and the environment.
Lichens: Dual Organisms
Twenty four photographs ranging from lichen covered rock faces, through individual species to magnified sections, published in a pictorial supplement to the Fifth Kingdom.
Life on the Rocks
A peep into the world of lichens by Paul James with photographs of a number of species growing in Wales.
Niebla and Vermilacinia Communities
Photographs and information on the lichens in the Ramalinaceae family found in California and Baja California.
Peltigera aphthosa
Photograph and description of the freckle pelt or spotted dog lichen, its habitat and other notes.
Plants Profile for Fayodia striatula
Details of this lichenous member of the family Tricholomataceae.
Reproduction and Reproductive Structures
Outline with diagrams of the two fundamentally different sorts of reproductive bodies possessed by lichens, and the three main types of vegetative reproduction where pieces of lichen detach.
Walton Hall Nature Trail
Take a walk through the churchyard to see what lichens grow on the different man-made outcrops of stone.
Last update:
February 23, 2016 at 6:15:05 UTC
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