Alamance was formed in 1849 from Orange. The name is supposedly derived from the Indian word meaning "blue clay." The county gets its name from the Alamance Creek on the banks of which was fought the battle between the colonial troops under Governor Tryon and the Regulators on May 17, 1771. It is in the central part of the State and is bounded by Orange, Chatham, Randolph, Guilford, and Caswell counties. The present land area is 430.85 square miles and the 1990 population was 108,213. The first court was ordered to be held at Providence Meeting House until a courthouse could be erected, provided the justices of the peace at the first session did not select some other place for all subsequent courts until the buildings were completed. Commissioners were named to select a site in the center of the county, acquire land, erect a courthouse, and lay out a town by the name of Graham. Graham was established in 1851 and is the county seat.

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