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Society and Culture
Wars and Conflicts
Agusan del Norte
World: Tagalog: Lipunan: Kasaysayan
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EDSA The Original People Power Revolution
- Powerful day-by-day chronicle of the downfall of dictator Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, by Angela Stuart-Santiago.
History of the Philippines
- Two narratives from Canada covering the beginnings of the archipelago all the way to the present, from Frasier Weir and from Daniel Young. Also, an account of the 85-year-long Dagohoy revolt in Bohol, by Alan Cajes.
1986 EDSA Revolution
- Explains the spirit, beginning, leaders, and the people of this revolution. From Ateneo's ThinkQuest.
Agrarian Reforms in the Philippines
- United Nations research paper on land reform programs from 1900 through the present CARP (Comprehensive Agricultural Reform Program). [PDF]
- Describes the origins and history of the Alibata writing system. By Victor Ganata, University of California Berkeley, 1999.
An American in the Philippines
- The online archival collection of George Percival Scriven, witness to the occupation of Bohol during the Philippine-American war, 1899 - 1901. From the Duke University special collections library.
Andres Bonifacio: A Self-taught Revolutionary
- Biography of the unschooled leader of the 1896 revolution who taught himself the ideals of 19th century liberalism and nationalist independence.
Andres Bonifacio: Father of Philippine Revolution
- On the early morning of May 10, 1897, General Lazaro Makapagal executed Andres Bonifacio, the father of the Philippine Revolution of 1896, and his brother Procopio in Mt. Nagpatong, Maragondon, Cavite, on orders by General Mariano Noriel, Emilio Aguinaldo's adjutant.
- Articles on culture, history, the Rizal-Blumentritt friendship, Austrian-Philippine relations, and picturesque old Philippines.
Books and Bookmaking in the Philippines
- The first printers were Chinese – Juan de Vera, Pedro de Vera and Luis Beltran who printed the doctrinas and many other books thereafter. Tomas Pinpin is the first and Patriarch of Filipino printers. By Rosa M. Vallejo of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA).
Chabacano, Philippine-style Spanish
- The development of Creole Spanish from its beginning on June 23, 1635, and the current state of the Spanish language in the Philippines.
Chinese Revolutionary In Cavite
- The story of Ignacio Paua, a Chinese migrant who fought on Emilio Aguinaldo's side in the battle of Binakayan, and was among Aguinaldo's aides to attack and arrest Andres Bonifacio, supremo of the Katipunan. By Teresita Ang See, in Hector Santos' website.
Clark Air Base 1959-1960 Memories
- Stories of a young man growing up on an airbase near Manila in the Philippines. Includes the first and only World Boy Scout Jamboree to be held in the Philippines. By Terry Ballard.
A Conflict That Won’t Go Away
- Overview of the Moro conflict in the southern Philippines beginning with the battle of Bud Bagsak on March 9, 1906, in the early years of American occupation of the country. By Madge Kho, formerly of Jolo, now living in Boston.
Constitutions and History
- The complete, unabridged national constitutions from 1899 to 1987 and other resources on Philippine history.
- The first book printed in the Philippines, Manila, 1593. A Facsimile of the copy in the Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection, Library, edited by Edwin Wolf 2nd. On the Project Gutenberg website.
- Gives a comparison of EDSA I and II, pictures, timeline, and links.
Evolution Of Filipino as a National Language
- Three articles tracing the evolution of the language from pre-history through successive infusion of foreign words.
- Legends and old-time stories told through the ages.
Fillipinos in America
- Highly personalized articles about Filipinos who migrated to America, by Nestor P. Enriquez
First Declaration of Philippine Independence
- The declaration in the town of Cavite-Viejo, Province of Cavite, on the 12th day of June 1898 by ‘Engregious Dictator Don Emilio Aguinaldo.’ On the MSC Centennial Site. Translated by Sulpicio Guevara.
The Former Philippines Thru Foreign Eyes, by Fedor Jagor, et al
- The complete text of out-of-print 1870 description of the then Spanish colony of the Philippines. An exceptional travelogue by a Prussian (Germany) naturalist, including the customs and appearance of the inhabitants at that time.
The Former Subic Bay Naval Base
- Photos, history, memorabilia, message boards.
Friars' History of the Philippines
- Spanish account of the colonization of the islands from 1521 through 1574.
Herman Knight Beaber
- Biography of an American missionary who continued his work after imprisonment by the Japanese during World War II.
The History Of Aurora
- In 1572, the Spanish explorer Juan de Salcedo became the first European to visit Casiguran, Baler and Infanta in the region that would be known as Aurora, Philippines.
History of Cagayan de Oro
- From its first human occupation in 377, christianization of Datu Salangsang by a Portuguese Recollect friar in 1626, to the end of the Marcos dictatorship in 1986, the story of the land of Huluga, later renamed by the Spaniards from the Cagayan Valley. By Antonio J. Montalvan II.
History of Gen. MacArthur in Eastern Samar
- Unofficial Website of Gen. MacArthur, Eastern Samar.
History of the Higaonon Tribe
- The Higaonon tribe of Mindanao in The Philippines (people of the living mountains), live in and manage their forest home in a natural and harmonious way. From the Unahi Mindanao Inc. website.
- An American account and analysis of the peasant revolt which nearly toppled the government in 1948-1950.
Humabon, Defender of Cebu
- Rajah Humabon massacred the men of Ferdinand Magellan after the battle of Mactan and other historical scenes re-created by Manuel Panares in his paintings of Cebu's past.
Inventing a Hero: A Book Review
- No copy of the revolutionary publication “Kalayaan” has ever been found and many historians question whether Andres Bonifacio actually wrote “Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog.” A Hector Santos book review of “Inventing a Hero” by Glenn May.
Japan attacks the Philippines, 1941-42
- The early part of World War II in the Philippines, including the fall of Bataan and Corregidor, and the Bataan Death March. By James Bowen.
Jewels of Imelda Marcos
- Photos and brief history of jewelry that supposedly belonged to the former First Lady.
- Information about the national hero of the Philippines, Jose Rizal. Includes an article on the rumored relationship with a former Nazi dictator.
Jose Rizal's Noli Me Tangere
- "The Social Cancer" ("Noli Me Tangere") The complete text of the novel that inspired the Philippine Revolution. With both contemporary and recent criticism. On the Project Gutenberg website.
Jose Rizal's Retraction, Or Not
- Did the national hero renounce all his writings against the friars, or not? Details of the multiple copies, doubtful document sources and vague testimonies sustain the long and still ongoing debate.
José Rizal’s El Filibusterismo
- Complete English version of José Rizal’s Spanish “El Filibusterismo,” translated by Charles Derbyshire to "The Reign of Greed" and published in Manila by the Philippine Education Company in 1922. From the Project Gutenberg website.
Justification of Spanish Rule
- 1582 council of Jesuit, Augustinian and Dominican friars convened by the first bishop of Manila to debate Spain's right to conquer the Philippines.
- Documents and studies on the patriotic secret society that launched the 1896 revolution against Spanish rule in the Philippines.
- History of the ancient town whose 1,600 inhabitants were converted to Christianity in 1578 by the noted Spanish friar-author, Juan de Plasencia. By Sol Jose Vanzi.
Mabini: A Century After His Passing
- Detailed biography of the great hero who originally refused to support the revolution but changed his mind when Jose Rizal was executed. By Alexander Martin. On the Bulatlat.com website.
Mabini: Wounded Hero
- Apolinario Mabini, one of the foremost of the Philippine revolutionary heros, was the “brains” of the revolution. His last years were his most painful. A biography from the Austrian-Philippine WebSite by Dr. Robert L. Yoder, FAPC.
Macario Sakay, Tulisan or Patriot?
- Long after the last of Gen. Aguinaldo's men surrendered to the Americans, independent armies continued their fight for independence. One of these was led by Macario Sakay. From Hector Santos' Philippine Centennial Series.
MacArthur’s Fight in the Philippines
- Gen Douglas MacArthur’s battle against the invading Japanese. First-person accounts by the few men who were there at the time. From the Public Broadcasting System's American Experience series.
Massacre at Bud Dajo
- On March 7, 1906, US troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood massacred as many as 1,000 Filipino Muslims, known as Moros, who were taking refuge at Bud Dajo, a volcanic crater on the island of Jolo in the Philippines. From The Boston Globe website.
Migration to the USA
- Race riots, discrimination, and other events experienced by Filipinos in the United States. Also, articles on the 1896 revolution and the 1899 Philippine-American War.
Nueva Vizcaya Became Filipino
- From prehistory to their assimilation into the Republic, the story of the tribal peoples of northern Luzon, by Micheal Predmore, a former Peace Corp volunteer, 1983-1987
Philippine Centennial Series
- Macario Sakay, July 4 the real independence day, and other historical articles by the Philippine History Group of Los Angeles, edited by Hector Santos
The Philippine Centennial Site
- GOMBURZA, the Tausug Resistance and other narratives published to celebrate the 1998 centennial anniversary, by MSC Communications.
Philippine History Outline
- From the early history of Negrito migration 30,000 years ago to the firing of Joseph Estrada by the supreme court, and the election of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as president. From the De La Salle University website.
Philippine History Site
- Narratives include the Revolution of 1896, the Philippine-American War and Filipino migration to the U.S. From the University of Hawaii website co-sponsored by the Filipino-American Historical Society of Hawaii, and the Operation Manong (UH Office of Multicultural Student Services).
A Philippine Leaf
- Literacy and writing among prehistoric Filipinos, by Hector Santos, known historian and expert on ancient writing.
- Biographies of each president, from Emilio Aguinaldo to Joseph Ejercito Estrada.
Philippine Scouts Heritage
- The first Scout organizations in the US army were created in 1901 during the early days of the American occupation of the Philippines. By Col. John E. Olson, USA (ret.)
Philippines - A Conflicted Land
- Rebellions, wars and insurgencies in the Philippines since 1898. Expanded timeline from the noted PBS Frontline series.
The Philippines: Past and Present
- Dean C. Worcester, noted American zoologist who explored the Philippines in 1887, narrates his experiences before and after he was appointed to the ruling Philippine Commission as Secretary of the Interior from 1901 to 1913, the initial phase of US conquest. From the Project Gutenberg website.
Religion in the Philippines
- The pre-Hispanic belief system of Filipinos consisted of a pantheon of gods, spirits, creatures, and men that guarded the streams, fields, trees, mountains, forests, and houses. By Jack Miller.
The Religions of the Philippines
- Impact of the introduction of alien religions on pre-historic animism and ancestor worship, and the interplay of homegrown and foreign religions to the present day. By Jack Miller.
Rizal: His Life And Labors, by Austin Craig
- A very detailed biography of the national hero, especially of his childhood years, including his first confrontation of death. Written by the Asst professor of Oriental History in the University of the Philippines in 1913.
- Articles on pre-Hispanic times, ancient baybayin writing, and language. Also with free fonts and celebrity pictures.
Sitting In Darkness
- Rise of anti-imperialism in the United States in 1901, led by well-known author Mark Twain, in reaction to the conquest of the Philippines.
Spaniards' First 50 Years in the Philippines
- Source documents of the early years of Spanish colonization. Also, documents on the church-state stormy relationship during the Spanish era.
The Story of the Philippines
- Written in 1898 by Murat Halstead, American war correspondent and historian of the US expedition to the Philippines, with interviews with Emilio Aguinaldo and Manila Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda. From the Project Gutenberg website.
Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas
- by Dr. Antonio de Morga, Mexico, 1609. Events in the Philippines from the end of the 16th century to the beginning of the 17th century. Translation by Alfonso de Salvio, Norman F. Hall and James Alexander Robertson. On the "Gutenberg Project E-book" website.
The Thomasites, Before and After
- Diatribe against the displacement of Spanish as lingua franca of the islands by the Thomasite teachers from the United States in the beginning of the 20th century. By Guillermo Gomez Rivera.
Through the Centuries
- Timeline and account of the Philippines from 30,000 BC to Abu Sayyaf in 2002, by Gunter Schwarz and Rosalinda Morgado-Schwarz.
Traditional Music of the Philippines
- The research of a German ethnomusicologist, Hans Brandeis, into the religious and traditional music, songs and dance of ethnic minorities, specifically the Bukidnons, in Mindanao. With photos and descriptions of musical instruments believed used since ancient times.
Tribute to Ninoy Aquino
- Includes rare photos, poems, and articles.
The True Decalogue
- Written by Apolinario Mabini, the national hero, as the real Ten Commandments for Filipinos seeking their freedom from Spanish domination. From the Project Gutenberg website.
- Leyte and Samar were natural harbors for ancient seafarers, including Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos in 1583 and Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1564. From Seasite, Northern Illinois University.
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