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Open Directory - Health: Specific Substances: Tobacco: Effects: By Source of Exposure: Cigarette Smoking
'Safer' Cigarettes May Be Not Be Safer
- Recent research finds that Advance, Eclipse, and Accord, which are marketed as safer, may not be safer at all, and may even lead to increased addiction.
Addiction and Cigarettes as Nicotine Delivery Devices
- Chapter from The Cigarette Papers covers what has been learned from industry secret documents regarding what the industry knew about nicotine and when it knew it.
Cigarette Filter Ventilation is a Defective Design
- Scientific article finds that cigarette filters are a success for the industry and a tragedy for the customer, because the industry gets a cheap-to-make cigarette that beats the standard tar tests, reassures smokers with a lighter taste, and facilitates the taking of bigger, compensating puffs that cause more lethal cancer.
Cigarettes Engineered for Addiction
- BBC News article on substances added to cigarettes by the industry to increase their addictiveness.
Cigarettes With Defective Filters Sold For 40 Years
- Philip Morris knowingly marketed cigarettes with defective filters for 40 years, according to recent research.
Cigarettes are Nicotine Delivery Devices
- Collection of FDA papers in PDF format, much of which concerns design and manufacture of cigarettes.
Cigarettes with Defective Filters Marketed for 40 years: What Philip Morris Never Told Smokers
- Article in scientific journal article explains what "fall-out" is, what Philip Morris knew about it and when they knew it, and what smokers didn't know.
Cigarettes: a Complex Cocktail of Chemicals
- BBC Report. More than 600 substances can be legally added to cigarettes, many of which act to increase the addictive impact of nicotine.
Designing a Cigarette for the First Time Smoker
- Article in scientific journal examines how R. J. Reynolds designed a cigarette to appeal to new customers.
FTC Accepts Settlements of Charges that "Alternative" Cigarette Ads Are Deceptive
- FTC action highlights claims made by makers of "natural" or "no additives" cigarettes.
Free-basing Nicotine: State of the Art
- 1973 R. J. Reynolds discovery of why Philip Morris's Marlboro was selling so well: it was being engineered with ammonia to increase the nicoctine kick.
Low Tar Product Category
- Case study of tobacco industry internal marketing documents shows considerable concern with exploiting smokers' perceptions that low-tar product were safer, and no concern with actually making the product safer. [PDF]
Minnesota vs. Tobacco February 4, 1998
- Trial transcript of testimony from expert witness Dr. Channing Robertson covers research and development and engineering of the cigarette product.
Prying Open the Door to the Tobacco Industry's Secrets About Nicotine
- Article in medical journal surveys industry documents produced in litigation, and finds the tobacco industry knew for decades that nicotine is an addictive drug, and knew ways to design cigarettes to make them more addictive.
Questions and Answers About Cigarette Smoking and Cancer
- Basic information from the National Cancer Institute about the relationship to cancer rates, health risks for nonsmokers, harmful chemicals found in cigarettes, and amount of exposure.
Researcher Publishes First Measurements of 'Free-base' Nicotine in Cigarette Smoke
- Research measures a more highly addictive form of nicotine in cigarettes and finds that "the modern cigarette does to nicotine what crack does to cocaine".
Search for a Safe Cigarette
- Chronicles the tobacco industry's attempts to create a "safer" cigarette. Companion Web site to a NOVA (PBS) television show broadcast on October 2, 2001.
Smoking Kills: The Tobacco White Paper
- Speech by Cliff Douglas to the Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation, detailing the different ways cigarette product is engineered for addiction. [PDF]
The Safer Cigarette: What the Tobacco Industry Could Do..and Why It Hasn't Done it
- ASH-UK paper; a survey of 25 years of patents for innovations to reduce toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco smoke.
Tobacco ingredients, additives, and radioactivity
- Chapter in the Tobacco Reference Guide.
Why Low Tar Cigarettes Don't Work and How the Tobacco Industry Has Fooled the Smoking Public
- Smokers could be forgiven for believing that low tar cigarettes deliver less tar to the smoker's lung. However, the actual tar exposure, and hence health risk, from smoking low tar brands may be the almost the same as for conventional cigarettes. ASH-UK report.
Public Misled Over Fire-safe Cigarettes
- New Scientist article reports the tobacco industry misled the public and legislators over fire-safe cigarettes, according to internal tobacco industry documents. (December 19, 2002)
A Safer Cigarette? Prove It, Say Critics
- JAMA article provides scientific evaluation of claims R.J. Reynold is making about its new tobacco product. (May 15, 2000)
ScienceDaily Magazine -- Tobacco Smoke Flavoring Contains Hazardous Chemicals
- Scientists have new data that toxic flavoring chemicals put in cigarettes are reaching smokers through cigarette smoke and may pose health hazards of their own. (May 09, 2000)
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