Torticollis is Latin for twisted neck and is commonly referred to as wry neck. It is a term used to identify any condition or disease that causes the neck to twist or the head to tilt.
Congenital Muscular Torticollis (CMT, Pseudotumor of Infancy, Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) Torticollis, Sternomastoid Torticollis, Fibromatosis Colli) is present at birth and affects the SCM causing the head to tilt toward the affected muscle with the chin pointing up.
Spasmodic Torticollis (ST, Intermittent Torticollis, Psychogenic Torticollis), a focal dystonia, causes the muscles of the neck to involuntarily contract (spasm) making the head twist. The head may twist forward (Anterocollis), backward (Retrocollis), to the side (Laterocollis), or the face may turn toward the shoulder (Rotational). The varieties of ST are shaking of the head (Clonic), turning to one side (Tonic), or a combination of both (Mixed).
Ocular Torticollis is a voluntary tilt of the head to correct abnormal sight. The sight may be abnormal due to misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), rapid jerking movement of the eye (nystagmus), or visual field defects.
Benign Paroxysmal Torticollis (BPT) is a head tilt that is not constant and may switch affected sides.