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Comparison and Review
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Computers: Programming: Languages: Multiparadigm
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1% the Code
- Chuck Moore, father of Forth, says programs can be far smaller in colorForth than C. No code samples.
99 Bottles of Beer on the Wall
- Shows source code implementation for the same simple program across over 250 different programming languages.
Ada 95, Java, and C++
- Some think Java is like C++. Usual C++ idioms do not apply to Java as it is not a C++ superset or subset; Java is a derivation with many modifications, extensions. Both language syntax are alike, but semantics and philosophy are very different. Java is nearer Ada 95 than C++, except in syntax.
Ada, C, C++, and Java vs. The Steelman
- Compares 4 programming languages (Ada 95, C, C++, Java) with the needs of "Steelman", original 1978 requirements document for Ada language. Big detailed table.
The BNF Web Club Language
- Browse, explore some programming language syntax rules, see relations between rules, understand them via BNF (Backus-Naur Form notation) and syntactic diagrams: SQL, PL/SQL, SQL2, IDL; Ada 95, Java, Modula-2; Lazy, Lisp, M5.
The Case against C
- Five short essays compare C (and C++ by extension) to Fortran: Why C is Not a Good Numerical Language, Why C is Not a Good First Language, C's Poor Loop Constructs, C's Pointers and Optimisation, Optimisation through Directives.
CLOS, Eiffel, and Sather: A Comparison
- References, zipped Postscript, and inlined gifs.
A Comparative Overview of C#
- Also compares C#, Java, C++. By Ben Albahari.
Comparisons of Tcl with Other Systems
- Many comparisons between Tcl/Tk and other similar systems, most copied from comp.lang.tcl.
The Computer Language Benchmarks Game
- Performance measurements and source code for multiple benchmark programs in different languages; with side-by-side comparisons between any two programming language implementations, and interactive boxplot chart comparisons between any 15.
D vs Other Languages
- Yes-No table with definitions compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, on: GC, functions, arrays, OOP, performance, reliability, compatibility, conditional compiling. [Digital Mars]
Eiffel and Delphi Compared
- Text compares differences of several main aspects.
An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl for a Search/string-processing Program
- One set of requirements, 80 implementations, coded by 74 different programmers in various languages, compared for properties: run time, memory use, source text length, comment density, program structure, reliability, effort needed. [PDF]
Forth and Not C
- Pro-Forth text explains why C is used more than Forth.
Forth Versus C
- Pro-Forth question and answer text, some questions have several answers.
Four-fold Increase in Productivity and Quality
- Published internal study, of Ericsson AXD 301 ATM switch project, using Erlang, C, C++, Java. Results: programmer productivity, code error rates, roughly proportional to source code size. [PDF]
Guidelines for Choosing a Computer Language: Support for the Visionary Organizations
- Multipage study compares: 4GL/5GL, 3GL (Ada 95, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Java, Smalltalk), 2GL (Assembly). Divides language (definition) from traits of products that implement and support it. Several sections, tables, appendixes.
History and Comparison of Programming Languages
- Files compare statements in several different languages, tracing from early to present languages.
Java and C++ Resource Management Comparison
- Detailed discussion of the techniques used in Java and C++ to implement leak free and exception safe resource management. Covers memory management, finalizers, destructors and finally blocks with examples. [PDF]
Java vs. C#
- Code for code comparison. All features on both languages are compared.
Languages Versus D
- Growing table compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, Delphi, Python, Perl, Eiffel, Sather, Smalltalk, Lisp/CLOS, Ada. Many clarifying comments below. [Wiki4D, Open Content]
Lisp as an Alternative to Java
- Brief text on comparisons of C, C++, Java, Lisp, Ron Garret / Erann Gat study, with conforming example program Lisp source code; very useful links.
Lisp as an Alternative to Java
- Ron Garret / Erann Gat comparison, starts from 1999 Prechelt study results, adds many insights; as text, a few tables. [Intelligence] [PDF]
Multi-Core Ant Colony Optimization for TSP in Erlang
- Compares Erlang, GHC Haskell, Standard ML (Alice, MLton); text, tables, graphs.
Nine Language Performance Round-up: Benchmarking Math & File I/O
- Small-scale benchmark test run on 9 languages or variants: Java 1.3.1 and 1.4.2, C via gcc 3.3.1, Python 2.3.2 and via Psyco 1.1.1, 4 from Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003: Visual Basic/C#/C++/J#.
Perl vs. Python vs. Ruby
- Comparison with text, code samples, many reader comments. Michael Tsai weblog.
PLEAC: Programming Language Examples Alike Cookbook
- Suite of common programming problems solved in Ada, C++, Erlang, Guile, Haskell, Java, Masd, merd, NASM, Objective Caml, Perl, Pliant, Python, Ruby, Tcl.
Programming Information from HB
Programming Language Benchmarks
- Compares the same program in Ada, C, Forth, FORTRAN, Java, Lisp, Perl, R, Ruby. Goal: support decisions in language choice for making compute-intensive Web programs. Text, table, code samples.
Programming Language Categories
- Brief text compares 6 basic language types: general scripting, programmer scripting, application development, low-level, pure functional, complete core.
Programming Language Comparison
- Table and text compares many features of some popular object-oriented languages: C++, C#, Eiffel, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Smalltalk, Visual Basic.
Programming Languages Mini-howto
- Briefly compares major Linux programming languages: C, C++, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Perl, PHP, Python, Tcl; by Risto S. Varanka.
Programming Languages Study
- Includes: diagram, history of languages; history of language concepts; syntax across languages; Scriptometer measures scripting ease of languages; mutability and sharing of various values in various languages.
Python Compared to Other Languages
- Many links to comparisons involving Python.
Qtime Collection, FTP Download, Gzipped
The Quine Page
- Collection of self-reproducing programs: each outputs a copy of its own source code; about 60 languages.
Ray Tracer Language Comparison
- Mini ray tracer benchmark written equivalently in C++, Java, SML, Objective Caml, Lisp, Scheme. Compares verbosity, performance; text, code samples, tables, image, graph. [Flying Frog Consultancy]
Reasons for TOM
- TOM attempts to address flaws in these languages: C++, Cecil, Common Lisp, Eiffel, Java, Objective-C, Smalltalk.
Ruby Versus Nine Object-Oriented Languages
- Compares Ruby, Objective-C, Smalltalk-80, C++, Java, Python, CLOS, Perl5, PHP, Dylan.
Simple Programs in Various Different Programming Languages
- Common algorithms and other sample code in the languages: Bash and Bourne shells, C/C++, Java, MATLAB/Octave, Perl, Python, Ruby, Scheme.
Syntax Across Languages
- Operator names and syntax elements in various programming languages.
Team Eiffel: The Zen of Python, Part I
- Text compares Python and Eiffel, via Tim Peters' Zen rules.
Timing Trials, or, the Trials of Timing: Experiments with Scripting and User-Interface Languages
- By Brian Kernighan, Christopher Van Wyk. Compares how fast C, Awk, Perl, Tcl, Java, Visual Basic, Limbo, Scheme, run a range of representative tasks. Text, tables, graphs, code samples.
TIOBE Programming Community Index: TPCI
- Updated monthly. Shows language popularity via world-wide availability of skilled engineers, courses, 3rd party vendors. Calculated from search engines Google, MSN, Yahoo.
- Brief comparison Curl with High Level assembler, BCX, Dark Basic, Mono (C#/.Net implementation), Python, Squeak, XBasic/XBlite. Curl applet examples.
University of Michigan's Language Guide
- Each entry includes history, description, code examples, and references.
What Languages Fix
- Compares many languages in brief text, describes each by the problem it fixes. [Paul Graham]
What's Wrong with Perl
- Author explains what he considers wrong about Perl, presents Python as an alternative. Descriptions, code samples, links.
Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language
- Brian Kernighan's comparison of Pascal and C
Why to Move from ASM to C
- Brief text compares Assembly to C; lower to higher level language. ScienceProg.
The Zen of Python
- Compares traits of many languages, without naming any; by Tim Peters.
Seven Reasons I Switched Back to PHP after Two Years on Rails
- Derek Sivers spent two years trying to make Rails do something it wasn't meant to do, then realized his old abandoned language (PHP) would do just fine if approached with my new Rails-gained wisdom. (September 22, 2007)
Comparing PHP with Other Languages
- Text compares several traits of ASP.NET, C#, PHP, Java, Lisp, Perl, Python, Ruby, Smalltalk. Article with forum posts. [Professional PHP] (February 09, 2006)
Schizoid Classes: Of Class, Type, and Method
- Compares Java and Smalltalk, in text and table. By Rodney Bates. [ACM Queue] (September 01, 2004)
What I Hate About Your Programming Language
Are Scripting Languages the Wave of the Future?
- Programming guru, Robert Martin, on languages of the coming decade. [ITworld.com] (March 01, 2001)
C#: A Language Alternative or Just J--?, Part 1
- Compares C# to Java, describes features and design trade-offs, places C# in context of broader Microsoft .Net strategy. Text, tables, code samples, links. By Mark Johnson. First article of 2-part series. [JavaWorld] (November 01, 2000)
C# Strikes a Chord
- Compares 4 languages: C, C++, C#, Java. Shows family genealogy. [Dr. Dobb's Journal] (September 04, 2000)
The C Family of Languages
- Interview with Dennis Ritchie, Bjarne Stroustrup, James Gosling. (July 01, 2000)
An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl
- By Lutz Prechelt. Neutral, quantitative analysis of 7 languages in title, for 7 variables, via 80 implementations of the same requirement set. PDF format. [IEEE Computer] [PDF] (March 14, 2000)
Gnat and Linux: C++ and Java Under Fire
- Compares Ada, Java, C, C++, Delphi. Text, tables. Gnat and Linux orientation. [Linux Gazette] (October 01, 1998)
Programming Language Critiques: Pascal, C, C++, and C-Linda
- Text compares languages on many points; by Jim Basney. (May 01, 1995)
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