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Comparison and Review
Computers: Programming: Languages: Directories
Computers: Programming: Languages: Multiparadigm
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1% the Code
- Chuck Moore, father of Forth, says programs can be far smaller in colorForth than C. No code samples.
99 Bottles of Beer on the Wall
- Shows source code implementation for the same simple program across over 250 different programming languages.
Ada 95, Java, and C++
- Some think Java is like C++. Usual C++ idioms do not apply to Java as it is not a C++ superset or subset; Java is a derivation with many modifications, extensions. Both language syntax are alike, but semantics and philosophy are very different. Java is nearer Ada 95 than C++, except in syntax.
Ada, C, C++, and Java vs. The Steelman
- Compares 4 programming languages (Ada 95, C, C++, Java) with the needs of "Steelman", original 1978 requirements document for Ada language. Big detailed table.
The BNF Web Club Language
- Browse, explore some programming language syntax rules, see relations between rules, understand them via BNF (Backus-Naur Form notation) and syntactic diagrams: SQL, PL/SQL, SQL2, IDL; Ada 95, Java, Modula-2; Lazy, Lisp, M5.
The Case against C
- Five short essays compare C (and C++ by extension) to Fortran: Why C is Not a Good Numerical Language, Why C is Not a Good First Language, C's Poor Loop Constructs, C's Pointers and Optimisation, Optimisation through Directives.
CLOS, Eiffel, and Sather: A Comparison
- References, zipped Postscript, and inlined gifs.
A Comparative Overview of C#
- Also compares C#, Java, C++. By Ben Albahari.
Comparisons of Tcl with Other Systems
- Many comparisons between Tcl/Tk and other similar systems, most copied from comp.lang.tcl.
The Computer Language Benchmarks Game
- Performance measurements and source code for multiple benchmark programs in different languages; with side-by-side comparisons between any two programming language implementations, and interactive boxplot chart comparisons between any 15.
D vs Other Languages
- Yes-No table with definitions compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, on: GC, functions, arrays, OOP, performance, reliability, compatibility, conditional compiling. [Digital Mars]
Eiffel and Delphi Compared
- Text compares differences of several main aspects.
An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl for a Search/string-processing Program
- One set of requirements, 80 implementations, coded by 74 different programmers in various languages, compared for properties: run time, memory use, source text length, comment density, program structure, reliability, effort needed. [PDF]
Forth and Not C
- Pro-Forth text explains why C is used more than Forth.
Forth Versus C
- Pro-Forth question and answer text, some questions have several answers.
Four-fold Increase in Productivity and Quality
- Published internal study, of Ericsson AXD 301 ATM switch project, using Erlang, C, C++, Java. Results: programmer productivity, code error rates, roughly proportional to source code size. [PDF]
Guidelines for Choosing a Computer Language: Support for the Visionary Organizations
- Multipage study compares: 4GL/5GL, 3GL (Ada 95, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Java, Smalltalk), 2GL (Assembly). Divides language (definition) from traits of products that implement and support it. Several sections, tables, appendixes.
History and Comparison of Programming Languages
- Files compare statements in several different languages, tracing from early to present languages.
Java and C++ Resource Management Comparison
- Detailed discussion of the techniques used in Java and C++ to implement leak free and exception safe resource management. Covers memory management, finalizers, destructors and finally blocks with examples. [PDF]
Java vs. C#
- Code for code comparison. All features on both languages are compared.
Languages Versus D
- Growing table compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, Delphi, Python, Perl, Eiffel, Sather, Smalltalk, Lisp/CLOS, Ada. Many clarifying comments below. [Wiki4D, Open Content]
Lisp as an Alternative to Java
- Brief text on comparisons of C, C++, Java, Lisp, Ron Garret / Erann Gat study, with conforming example program Lisp source code; very useful links.
Lisp as an Alternative to Java
- Ron Garret / Erann Gat comparison, starts from 1999 Prechelt study results, adds many insights; as text, a few tables. [Intelligence] [PDF]
Multi-Core Ant Colony Optimization for TSP in Erlang
- Compares Erlang, GHC Haskell, Standard ML (Alice, MLton); text, tables, graphs.
Nine Language Performance Round-up: Benchmarking Math & File I/O
- Small-scale benchmark test run on 9 languages or variants: Java 1.3.1 and 1.4.2, C via gcc 3.3.1, Python 2.3.2 and via Psyco 1.1.1, 4 from Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003: Visual Basic/C#/C++/J#.
Perl vs. Python vs. Ruby
- Comparison with text, code samples, many reader comments. Michael Tsai weblog.
PLEAC: Programming Language Examples Alike Cookbook
- Suite of common programming problems solved in Ada, C++, Erlang, Guile, Haskell, Java, Masd, merd, NASM, Objective Caml, Perl, Pliant, Python, Ruby, Tcl.
Programming Information from HB
Programming Language Benchmarks
- Compares the same program in Ada, C, Forth, FORTRAN, Java, Lisp, Perl, R, Ruby. Goal: support decisions in language choice for making compute-intensive Web programs. Text, table, code samples.
Programming Language Categories
- Brief text compares 6 basic language types: general scripting, programmer scripting, application development, low-level, pure functional, complete core.
Programming Language Comparison
- Table and text compares many features of some popular object-oriented languages: C++, C#, Eiffel, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Smalltalk, Visual Basic.
Programming Languages Mini-howto
- Briefly compares major Linux programming languages: C, C++, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Perl, PHP, Python, Tcl; by Risto S. Varanka.
Programming Languages Study
- Includes: diagram, history of languages; history of language concepts; syntax across languages; Scriptometer measures scripting ease of languages; mutability and sharing of various values in various languages.
Python Compared to Other Languages
- Many links to comparisons involving Python.
Qtime Collection, FTP Download, Gzipped
The Quine Page
- Collection of self-reproducing programs: each outputs a copy of its own source code; about 60 languages.
Ray Tracer Language Comparison
- Mini ray tracer benchmark written equivalently in C++, Java, SML, Objective Caml, Lisp, Scheme. Compares verbosity, performance; text, code samples, tables, image, graph. [Flying Frog Consultancy]
Reasons for TOM
- TOM attempts to address flaws in these languages: C++, Cecil, Common Lisp, Eiffel, Java, Objective-C, Smalltalk.
Simple Programs in Various Different Programming Languages
- Common algorithms and other sample code in the languages: Bash and Bourne shells, C/C++, Java, MATLAB/Octave, Perl, Python, Ruby, Scheme.
Syntax Across Languages
- Operator names and syntax elements in various programming languages.
Team Eiffel: The Zen of Python, Part I
- Text compares Python and Eiffel, via Tim Peters' Zen rules.
TIOBE Programming Community Index: TPCI
- Updated monthly. Shows language popularity via world-wide availability of skilled engineers, courses, 3rd party vendors. Calculated from search engines Google, MSN, Yahoo.
- Brief comparison Curl with High Level assembler, BCX, Dark Basic, Mono (C#/.Net implementation), Python, Squeak, XBasic/XBlite. Curl applet examples.
University of Michigan's Language Guide
- Each entry includes history, description, code examples, and references.
What Languages Fix
- Compares many languages in brief text, describes each by the problem it fixes. [Paul Graham]
What's Wrong with Perl
- Author explains what he considers wrong about Perl, presents Python as an alternative. Descriptions, code samples, links.
Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language
- Brian Kernighan's comparison of Pascal and C
Why to Move from ASM to C
- Brief text compares Assembly to C; lower to higher level language. ScienceProg.
Comparing PHP with Other Languages
- Text compares several traits of ASP.NET, C#, PHP, Java, Lisp, Perl, Python, Ruby, Smalltalk. Article with forum posts. [Professional PHP] (February 09, 2006)
Schizoid Classes: Of Class, Type, and Method
- Compares Java and Smalltalk, in text and table. By Rodney Bates. [ACM Queue] (September 01, 2004)
What I Hate About Your Programming Language
Are Scripting Languages the Wave of the Future?
- Programming guru, Robert Martin, on languages of the coming decade. [ITworld.com] (March 01, 2001)
C#: A Language Alternative or Just J--?, Part 1
- Compares C# to Java, describes features and design trade-offs, places C# in context of broader Microsoft .Net strategy. Text, tables, code samples, links. By Mark Johnson. First article of 2-part series. [JavaWorld] (November 01, 2000)
C# Strikes a Chord
- Compares 4 languages: C, C++, C#, Java. Shows family genealogy. [Dr. Dobb's Journal] (September 04, 2000)
The C Family of Languages
- Interview with Dennis Ritchie, Bjarne Stroustrup, James Gosling. (July 01, 2000)
An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl
- By Lutz Prechelt. Neutral, quantitative analysis of 7 languages in title, for 7 variables, via 80 implementations of the same requirement set. PDF format. [IEEE Computer] [PDF] (March 14, 2000)
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